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iSko. 



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DEFENSIVE EXERCISES; 



COMPRISING 



WRESTLING, 

ifC. 




DEFENSIVE EXERCISES; 

COMPRISING 

WRESTLING 

\ 
\ 

AS IK CUMBERLAND, WESTMORELAND, CORNWALL, ANJI D^pS^tpt \ 

BOXING, 

BOTH IN THE USUAL MODE AND IN A SIMPLER ONE*, 

DEFENCE AGAINST BRUTE FORCE, BY VARIOUS MEANS ; 

FENCING AND BROAD SWORD, WITH SIMPLER 

METHODS; THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE; 

THE RIFLE, AND ITS EXERCISE; 

SfC. SfC. SfC, 
WITH ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS. 



By DONALD WALKER. 



LONDON: 
THOMAS HURST, 5, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD ; 

MAOHIN AND CO. DUBLIN; 

SOLD ALSO, BT WILLIAM F. OBR, AND CO. PATERNOSTER ROW; 

AND J. THOMAS, FINCH LANE, CORNBlLL. 

1840. 

311. 



'3 



Palmsr and Clayton, PaimiRa, 
?, Cmie -court, Fleet-itreeU 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



I am not a less ardent lover of peace than those who 
inculcate non-resistance. I only differ from them as to the 
means of ensuring peace. 

All we have yet seen of men, proves that they ever seek 
to aggrandize themselves at the expense of their neighbours. 
The individuals of a society are indeed tolerably obedient to 
the law ; but, even in it, when power is given to a particular 
class, it always robs its neighbours. Governments also find, in 
the fact that the people have submitted to spoliation, the 
most conclusive argument that they ought still to submit 
to it. And, as to contiguous states, the feebleness of one 
constitutes its neighbour's right of invasion. 

The power of resistance puts an end to spoliation. No 
man robs another who is equally strong, and possesses both 
arms and art to use them. Still less will a small class 
think of robbing a vastly greater one thus prepared: by the 
former, therefore, are arms entrusted only to hirelings. As 



*? 



VI ADVERTISEMENT. 

little will an army, or limited number of men of one 
country, attack the millions of another, all prepared for 
defence: governments know this, but willingly hazard na- 
tional destruction rather than resign the power of robbing 
while they may. 

Universal skill in the arts of defence, and the protection 
of a country entrusted to all its males from the age of* 
eighteen to nineteen, are, therefore, in aid of knowledge, 
the surest means of freedom, and perpetual peace. 



CONTENTS. 



Measures of Force 

Wrestling ... * 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Style 

Cornish and Devonshire Methods 

Boxing .... 

Simpler Method of Boxing 

Methods of Defence against Brute Force 

Fencing • • • • 

Broad Sword 

Simpler Method for the Broad Sword 

The Quintain 

Throwing .... 

The Gun, and its Exercise 

The Rifle, and its Exercise 

Sketch of the Modern System of War 





Pagk 


• 


. 1 


• 


8 


yle 


. 10 


• 


24 




. 35 


* 


51 




. 55 


• 


72 




. 100 


* 


120 




. 122 


• 


131 




. 132 


• 


167 




. 175 



DEFENSIVE EXERCISES. 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON MEASURES 
OF FORCE. 

The instruments to measure force, are termed Dynamo- 

The Dynamometer of Repulsive Force is represented by 
figures 1, 2, 3, 4. 



Fig. 1, exhibits its external appearance, with a scale marking 
the weight moved; fig. 2, the interior spiral spring; fig. 3, the 
base or loner half, constructed of wood ; and fig. 4, the handle 
used in pressing the instrument against the breast. A well- 
stutfed cushion, on the upper part of fig. 1, is intended to 
preserve the fist from injury in striking the instrument. 



MEASURES OF FORGE. 



The dynamometer of Compressive Force is represented by 
figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 



i 






8 



Fig. 5, represents its front; fig. 6, a perspective view of the 
rack used to measure the strength of the loins ; fig. 7, another 
view of the same ; fig. 8, the hook necessary to bring the 
dynamometer towards the body; and fig. 9, another view of 
the same. 

Dynamometers of compressive and repulsive force should 
be kept in all gymnasia, for the purpose of testing the strength 
of the pupils. 

In ascertaining the strength of the hands, the dynamometer 
of compressive power is grasped by them, and kept at first on 
a level with the hips, the hands being placed nearly in the 
middle of the instrument, and the fingers closed tightly, though 
not forcibly. From this position, the arm extended is raised as 
high as possible, and again lowered to the level of the shoulders, 
as shewn in fig. 10, the fingers being then forcibly employed 
so as to drive the index round the greater part of the circle, 
which exhibits the power of each effort by pounds marked 
upon it. 

This essay should be succeeded by trying the force of the 
loins by the same instrument, with a caution to the pupil not 
to overstrain himself; for the object in view is to teach him the 



TUB DYNAMOMETER. 




proper use of his powers, and the means of hoarding and 
restraining them when their full exercise might be injurious. 
He must be taught, that however useful strength may be, it 
must always be regarded as of secondary importance in gym- 

The strength of the loins can be tested in two nays, either 
by supporting the body and loins against the wall or a strong 
door, or without any support whatever. 

Fig. 11, exhibits a trial of the strength of the loins, in 



4 MBA8URES OF FORCE. 

the middle of a room without any support to the hack. Between 
the legs is placed the rack, the feet being firmly placed on the 
flat branches of the stand, close to the support. The dyna- 
mometer is fastened by one of the extremities of the great axis 
to one of the notches, and the hook applied to the other 
extremity of the dynamometer, to^raise or depress the instru- 
ment more or less, till it is so placed as to be most convenient 
for the effort and the raising of the arms, in order to produce 
the greatest possible effect. 

The master who presides over this operation, will watch the 
muscles and veins of the pupil's neck, which must be unco- 
vered ; and when he perceives it to be too much swollen, or 
the face too red, he will order the pupil to cease: he then 
enquires the weight as shewn by the instrument, and enters it 
in his book. 

The next step is to find the tractive power. This is done by 
making use of the dynamometer, as shewn in fig. 12. The 



12 




jjupil being seated on the ground, hooks the instrument to the 
beam, places his two feet against it, stretches his legs out, and 
draws the instrument towards him by means of the handle. 
This exercise is very similar to the preceding ; but the position 
is more convenient : the legs, by pushing horizontally against 
the beam, tend to increase the pressure, and generally a greater 
weight is marked. The teacher should observe the effect pro- 



duced by tbii effort upon the neck and face, so as to stop the 
pupil at the proper time, as in the preceding exercise. 

This should be succeeded by the fourth trial, or vertical blow 
with the right arm, exercised on the dynamometer of repulsive 
power. Fig. 13, represents the action of striking against the 



upper cushion of the instrument, with the fiat firmly closed, 
and care taken to deliver the blow upon the middle or axis of 
the dynamometer; for the Mow would be ineffective unless the 
spring received the full power of the arm, inasmuch as it would 
not yield sufficiently, and the result would be trifling. If a 
false blow has been given, it must be again tried, and the most 
successful noted. — The vertical impulsive power of the left arm 
is to be noted in the same nay. 

Horizontal impulsion with both hands is practised by placing 
the dynamometer or repelling power in advance, as shewn in 
fig. 14. The instrument is pushed with the two fists, or the 
hands locked together, and the effect produced is entered as 



MBAIUBES OF FORCE. 



Horizontal impulsion with the right fist i* practised as repre- 
sented in fig. 15, end the weight moved » noted. Horizontal 
impulsion with the left is practised in the same way. 




THE DYNAMOMETER. 



The power of pressure against the chest is tested by placing 
the same dynamometer between the chest and the hands in the 
position shewn in fig. 16. This pressure is most conveniently 



16 




practised by means of the double handle, but can be exercised 
by the hands if the handle be wanting. When children are 
young, and their arms not sufficiently long to go round the 
dynamometer and cross hands, they may be instructed to seize 
the ends of a handkerchief passed over the extremity, and thus 
draw the moveable part of the instrument towards them. 



8 WRE8TLING IN GENERAL. 



WRESTLING. 



WRESTLING IN GENERAL. 

The art of wrestling was highly esteemed by the ancients, 
and constituted an important portion of the Olympic Games. 
In the ages of chivalry, also, to wrestle was accounted one of 
the accomplishments of a hero. 

Of the principles of wrestling different views have been 
taken. — In England, its rules have been rather restricted. — 
On the Continent have been admitted, not only what nave here 
been deemed more or less unfair, but what is positively so, as 
well as what is unseemly and disgusting. 

Mr. Clias has, it seems, introduced some of these practices 
into our public schools ; and the following are the observations 
of one of their ablest opponents, a clever writer in ' Black- 
wood's Magazine.' 

" We have been too long accustomed to the simple, straight- 
forward, manly, close-hugging, back-hold * worstle' of the North 
of England, to enter into the Captain's cantrips; and we 
devoutly wish that we could see himself, or his best scholar, try 
a fall with any one of the fifty of the Cumberland and West- 
moreland Society in London." — " In order to prepare his 
scholars for wrestling, the most complicated of gymnastics, 
both with respect to the diversity of its movements, and the 
different situations in which wrestlers are often placed, Captain 
Clias explains a course of preparatory exercises, which serves 
as an introduction. They have a somewhat quackish cha- 
racter, and a few of them seem to us better fitted to make a 
mountebank than a wrestler." — " The essential difference 
between Captain Clias' s system of wrestling and that of the 



WRESTLING IN GENERAL. U 

North of England, is this, that in his, the wrestlers catch hold 
in any way they choose; whereas, in the North, each party 
has an equal and similar hold before the struggle begins. Who 
can doubt which is the better system? The Captain's is radi- 
cally savage and barbarous, and more congenial with the habits 
and temper of African negroes than European whites. The 
other is fair, just, and civilized. To us the sight of one man 
catching hold of another round the waist, and, consequently, 
throwing him at his pleasure, without the possibility of his 
antagonist making any effectual resistance, would be sickening 
indeed. Thus, what true cock of the North can read, without 
disgust, Exercise XIII. entitled, ' Of the First Fall?' The 
following exhibition must resemble dog-fighting more than 
man-wrestling : — * In this exercise, the two wrestlers are lying 
on the ground, one on his right side, and the other on his left, 
two feet apart, and opposite to each other,' &c." 

While I concur in these views as to all that, independent of 
mere national habits, is really unfair, and as to all that is in 
any way disgusting or even unseemly, I think the rules of 
English wrestling might be advantageouly extended. Wrest- 
ling ought, perhaps, to be considered not merely as a pastime, 
which may be subjected at pleasure to the narrowest rules, but 
as a means of defence, in which all that can properly be called 
wrestling, and is capable of conferring an advantage, is admis- 
sible, because, when used in defence, such advantages would be 
taken. 

If here it be objected, that what is positively unfair or un- 
seemly might be equally advantageous, and should, therefore, 
be taught, — we answer, no ; because that which is here unfair, 
as the giving a blow, belongs to, and is taught by another art, 
and ought not be confounded with this one, and because that 
which is unseemly need never be taught. 

The first care of the wrestler should be quickly to discover 
the weakness of his adversary; always remembering, that 
weight and strength are of greatly diminished value, when 
experience and skill are defective. 



10 



CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 



Wrestling should always take place upon a flat surface, free 
from stones, and covered with turf. 

The men of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and those of 
Devonshire and Cornwall, are famed for their skill in this art. 

We shall commence with the 

CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 

THE DRESS. 

The shoes are taken off; the trousers are tucked up to the 
knees, to prevent the adversary's feet getting entangled with 
them ; and both wrestlers strip to the shirt. 

THE HOLD. 

The feet should not be in a direct line before the adversary ; 
but should be placed, as it were, on the two opposite corners 
of a parallelogram, double the length that it is wide ; for it is 
necessary that the position should be firm against pulling or 
pushing, backward, forward, or to either side. The left foot 
should in general be nearly two feet before the right. — Fig. 17. 




THE HOLD. 11 

The legs should be almost straight, and the weight should 
be entirely on the right one. 

The back should be rather convex. 

The shoulders should be squared ; and the breasts of both 
should be so laid against each other, that their collar bones 
may be in the same line. Thus, each has an equal use of his 
arms, which would not be the case if the breast of one were 
below that of the other. For if one shrink his breast under 
the other's, and take hold in that position, he has a decided 
advantage, in so far as be deprives his adversary of the use of 
his right arm, in bending it down by the pressure of his left 
arm. 

Each wrestler has thus his head over his adversary's right 
shoulder. 

In the hold, each party has the right arm inside his adver- 
sary's left, and the left arm outside his adversary's right. 

The best way of clasping the hands round the back of the 
antagonist, is, as it were, to make of the two hands a couple of 
hooks, by placing all the fingers of one hand, held together and 
bent at the first and second joints, into the other hand held 
in the same way. In this manner, the back of the left hand 
should be brought to press on the antagonist's right loin, just 
between the hip and the small ribs ; for the back of the hand, 
sinking in between these, makes the hold very firm. 

This method of clasping the hands gives more play to the 
wrists, than the method of laying hold of one wrist with the 
other hand; or than clasping the hands so, that between every 
two fingers of one hand there is a finger of the other. 

The most scientific wrestlers generally prefer slack holds, 
that is, to take hold without pressing more upon the antago- 
nist than is necessary to prevent his getting more than a 
fair hold. 

IMPROVEMENT OF THE HOLD. 

By improving the hold, is meant getting the breast more 
under the adversary, and the arms tighter and closer about his 
loins. 



12 CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 

The moment the umpire has given the word to begin, each 
is at liberty to improve his hold in the best manner he can, 
without altering the grasp of his hands. 

It is then quite fair to shrink under the breast, and pinion 
the right arm of the adversary by the pressure of your left 
dose to his elbow. If this can be done, it is a very great 
advantage. — Fig. 18. 




FALLS IN GENERAL. 

In order to constitute a fair fall : — 

1 . The man who throws must have held his hands or fingers 
clasped in exactly the same manner, and without letting go, 
from the beginning of the wrestle to the end of the fall. 

2. He must either fall on his adversary, or not at all. 

3. He will be considered as falling on the adversary, if he 
fall with only one leg across him. 

PARTICULAR FALLS AND THEIR STOPS. 

As the different falls in wrestling are generally quite distinct 
and unconnected with each other, there is consequently no 
particular order in which to describe them. 



THE HIPE. 13 

THE HIPE. 

The hipe is one of the most difficult things to execute well, 
on account of the variety of movements requiring to be per- 
formed at the same time. 

I may describe the hipe as executed with the left leg, which 
is mostly the case. — Fig. 19. 




Suddenly lift the adversary off the ground, and swing him 
and yourself round to the right ; at the same instant striking 
the inside of his right thigh with your left knee, and pitching 
him with your hip. Thus, his upper parts swinging round to 
the right, and his legs being kept off the ground by the action 
of your left knee, he will be thrown out of balance, and must, 
therefore, mil. You will fall upon him. 

To apply the above description to hipeing with the right leg, 
read throughout right instead of left 

To stop the hipe, — when the adversary attempts to lift you 
up, in order to swing you round, you must endeavour to keep 
yourself to the ground by shrinking your breast under him; 
and, if he strike at you with his left leg, you must meet it with 
your right. If he succeed in lifting you, you will be thrown; 
but if you succeed in shrinking your breast under him, your 



14 CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND 8TYLE. 

hold will be thus so much improved, that you will have by far 
the best chance. 

It is sometimes possible to stop the hipe by clapping the 
knees instantly together; thus preventing the adversary get- 
ting his leg between them. 

Be careful when you attack the adversary, in whatever way 
it may be, to keep your right arm well up ; for otherwise, if 
you do not succeed in throwing him, he will so much improve 
his hold that your chance will be lost. 

THE BACK HEEL. 

The back heel, sometimes called " catching the heel," is 
effected by throwing one of the heels behind the adversary's 
heel, with such strength and quickness as to force his foot for- 
ward ; while, at the same time, the whole weight of the body 
is thrown forward upon him, so as to force him backward. He 
thus falls on his back, with the antagonist upon him. — Fig. 20. 




It sometimes happens, though you cannot at once throw 
the adversary with the back heel, that, by keeping the heel 
behind him, and pressing forward, you will be able to throw 
him by gradually getting him out of balance. It is then called 
" hankering the heel." 



THE CROSS-BUTTOCK. 15 

There is no way of stopping this attack, when made with 
spirit, but slackening the hold, planting the feet firmly upon 
the ground, and keeping the weight forward. But one very 
superior in quickness to his adversary, may find time to hipe 
the leg put forward to back-heel him. 

THE BUTTOCK AND CROSS-BUTTOCK. 

As in both these movements it is necessary to twist the body 
sideways so as to get one of the hips under the antagonist, 
they are easier performed with slack holds than with close 
ones. — They may be performed with either side, but the left is 
most common. 

To take the buttock with the left hip, twist your left side 
round, so as to get your left hip under your adversary's belly, 
and pull strongly with your arms, so as to keep him on your 
buttock. Thus, as you twist yourself suddenly round to the 
right, he will be hoisted off the ground ; and, as both of you 
keep turning and falling at the same time, he will fall under 
you. 

In the cross-buttock, the side is twisted in; but it is so 
twisted round, that the back is almost turned to the adversary, 
and the leg of the same side (for instance the left) is placed 
entirely across his (left) leg. — The result is shewn in fig. 21. 




16 CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 

These movements, when well performed, are very difficult to 
stop, because in them you are at once lifted off the ground and 
upon the adversary's back; but they may be stopped by in- 
stantly taking the lock from behind, at the same time crouch- 
ing and drawing the head from under his arms. — Fig. 22. 



THE LOCK. 

The lock may be taken with either leg. I may may describe 
it as performed with the left leg. 

Pass your left leg between those of the adversary, and twist 
it round his right leg by passing it backward, outward and 
forward, so that the toe comes as much as possible to the front 
of his shin, thus actually locking these legs. — Fig. 23. 

Be careful when you take the lock not to bend too much 
forward, but to hold yourself back; for if you once lean for- 
ward, the adversary will try to prevent you rising again, and, 
perhaps, even throw you forward. 

Having obtained this position, in which you will be standing 
almost by the side of your adversary, you may endeavour to 
throw him backward, hy turning yourself forcibly to the left. 




n 



If, on the contrary, the adversary take the lock upon you, 
you must endeavour to prevent him throwing you on your 
back, by keeping your weight forward, taking care, however, 
that you are not thrown in that direction ; for, in this situ- 
ation, both parties have the power of throwing forward. 



THE BLOW WITH THE KNEE ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE 

ADVERSARY'S KNEE. 

If after taking the hipe with the left leg, you find your man 
will not come down, you may strike the outside of his left knee 
with your right knee, and keep turning to the right all the 
while. The same may be done on the other side. — Fig. 23. 

The blow with the knee is very useful in many other cases, 
and is also an effective movement in itself when executed with 
force and quickness. 

IN AND OUT. 

The movement termed in and out, is performed by striking 
the opposite leg of the opponent in such a manner that the 
knee is outside his knee, and the foot inside his ancle ; thus 
the shins cross. — Fig. 24. 

It is very useful as an auxiliary to the other attacks. 

c 



18 CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 



24 




THE CHIP. 



The chip is performed by striking the hollow of the foot 
against the outside of the antagonist's ankle, at the same time 
that you swing him round to the same side as the leg you 
strike. 



THE STROKE WITH ONE LEG AND THEN WITH THE 

OTHER. 

This, it is very difficult to execute well; but, when well 
done, it is one of the prettiest movements in wrestling. 

It consists of two actions. The first of these is the blow 
with the knee, the chip, the in and out, or some such move- 
ment. The second is a blow across the other shin with the leg. 

Suppose you have performed any of the beforementioned 
movements with the right leg or foot, you must immediately 
place it on the ground, strike across the antagonist's right 
shin with your left leg, and swing him round to the right. 

The same may be done on the other side. 



RULES OF WRESTLING. 19 



HAMMING 



Differs from " catching the heel," by the attack being made 
behind the knee of the defendant, instead of behind his ankles 
but both of these are opposed in the same way. 

Though it may not be possible to take the hipe as a defence 
against this, yet it may be possible to overthrow the adversary 
to the same side as the leg he puts forth to ham with. 

GRANDY-STEPPING 

Consists in getting one of the legs behind both of the 
adversary's. 

RULES OF WRESTLING. 

The following are the rules as given by Mr. Litt. They are 
adopted here, both because they are extremely judicious, and 
because uniformity on this point is very desirable. 

Rule 1st. — The umpire, writer and crier, appointed by a 
majority of those who give the prize, or by the person to 
whom it is entrusted, having taken their stations within the 
ring, every wrestler shall come forward to the writer, enter 
his own name, and immediately retire to some allotted station, 
where he will be expected to be found when called upon. 

The wrestlers are generally permitted to lie down inside the 
ring; which many of them are anxious to do, that they may 
witness the sport, and notice the methods of those with whom 
they may have to contend. 

Rule 2nd. — All the names being entered, the writer shall 
mention the first and the last on the list to the crier, carefully 
placing at the same time the figure 1 before the names, to 
denote that they are the last called; and to instruct him to 
find, without danger of a mistake, the two next in turn. The 
crier shall go to that part of the ring allotted to the wrestlers, 
and repeat the said names loudly and distinctly. The men 
shall immediately answer, and come forward ; which, if they 
shall neglect to do in such time as the umpire shall deem rea- 

c 2 



20 CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 

sonable, the defaulter shall lose the fall. On their meeting, 
leaving them to the umpire, the crier, furnished with the 
names next in turn, shall call upon the owners of them to get 
ready, while those preceding them get hold and wrestle. On 
the termination of every fall, the umpire shall give in to the 
writer the names of the winner and loser, which he shall write 
down opposite to each other, placing the figure 2 before the 
winner's name, which will always be the first written. The 
writer taking the names next to those marked, marking them 
in a similar manner, and writing the names given in by the 
umpire, shall proceed till the whole are called. If there prove 
to be an odd name in the middle of the list, it shall be called to, 
the first winner ; but if the odd man prove the conqueror, his 
name, though of course written opposite to the man's he has 
thrown, shall retain the figure 1 to it, which will then become 
indicative of the falls he has won. The writer thus marking 
and calling the first and last winning names together in every 
round, which he must take care to distinguish; and in like 
manner, still writing the names of those who contend opposite 
to each other : it will appear that the odd man has wrestled 
one fall fewer than those in the same list, as every other name 
will be marked with the figure 2; and if he win the next fall, 
his name advancing one every fall, will have the 2 perfixed to 
it, while the others on that list have 3. Thus his name being 
at the head of the list, he will meet the odd man in the pre« 
vious round ; if he win, he will still remain one behind upon 
the next list ; and if he lose, his conqueror exchanges situations 
with him. By this method, when few are left, the umpire will 
have it in his power to place them on an equal footing. Thus, 
when three are left, if the first has thrown only three men, and 
the other two have thrown four each, they may toss, draw cuts, 
or ticket, which is to wrestle him first; but if all three have 
wrestled equally, they may in like manner decide which two 
shall wrestle first. 

Thus, while men who do not wish to come together, may 
prevent it by entering their names immediately following each 



RULES OF WRESTLING. 21 

other at any time but in the exact centre; they can have 
have no possible guess who will be their opponent. For as the 
low and high numbers are called together in the first round 
till they meet in the centre; the centre names are, conse- 
quently, after that round, thrown to the last, and will, in the 
second round, meet a high or a low number indiscriminately, 
which will cause them to be scattered in the head of the list 
in the third round. Thus, supposing forty enter at first, the 
numbers 1 and 40 are called together, and so on, till 20 and 
21 meet in the centre; then it is quite uncertain, whether the 
centre victor, 19 or 22, will meet the conquering number of 
2 and 39, one of which must be the second victor in that 
round ; and so on progressively. 

If the umpire and writer are at all careful, no mistake can 
arise, as the writer will perceive, at a single glance, what names 
are next the marked ones which have been called ; and if any 
dispute arise, the list is still there to rectify it. Therefore, 
while this method preserves all the uncertainty of ticketing, 
the list will be ready for publication the moment the wrestling 
is over; and, on perusing it, every man may convince himself 
he has been fairly treated. As it is a very great chance that 
a number, dividing equal to the last, such 32, 64, or 128, will 
be the exact number entered, it is desirable it should be one 
doing so till very few competitors remain. Thus, 96 will leave 
three, and 80, five, &c. In such cases, the umpire, having the 
power of equalizing the chance, should then ticket them, as 
the small number, and the men having become conspicuous, 
would then prevent any confusion ; and we would recommend 
the umpire to call them forward to witness their own names 
drawn. Whenever an odd number occurs, the prizes should 
not be definitively settled till the last fall, as the wrestlers 
cannot be on equal terms. 

It may be necessary to remark, that, after the first round, 
the numbers, except the marks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, indicative of 
the rounds and falls the names before them have won, may be 
laid aside ; their principal use being to ascertain the number 



22 CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND STYLE. 

entered, which, as it occupies little time, and may be done 
beforehand, is well worth the trouble. 

Rule 3rd. — When two men cannot soon agree in taking hold, 
the umpire shall place them at such a distance as the size of 
the men may render proper for ulterior proceeding. He shall 
then cause them to square their shoulders, and the higher part 
of their breasts against eaeh other, in such manner that the 
right and left shoulder blades of both are perfectly level, and 
the arms stretched out so that the hands are in a line with the 
pap of the breast. He shall then direct one of them to take 
hold without shrinking his right breast and shoulder under- 
neath his opponent's, and so as to preserve a perfect equality 
in the use of the right arm: when this is the case, making 
proper allowance for contracting the arms by grasping the back 
of his opponent, the hold will be something below the level of 
the paps. If the umpire is satisfied the hold is fair, he shall 
cause the other to take hold likewise without shrinking, op 
swerving to either side ; which being done, he shall immedi- 
ately give the word. If the umpire perceives that either party 
is striving for an advantage, or will not take hold, he shall 
decide the fall against him; and if neither party will implicitly 
obey his directions, he shall cross them both out without fur- 
ther loss of time. 

Rule 4th. — If the man who takes the latter hold, makes play 
at the same time, and either throws bis opponent immediately, 
or obtains such an advantage by it as m the judgment of the 
umpire occasions the ultimate termination of the fall; or, if the 
first taker-hold strike before it can be clearly ascertained that 
the other has hold, and obtains a similar advantage by doing 
so, the fall shall be wrestled over again ; and if the same con- 
duct be repeated, the offender shall lose the fall. It shall 
likewise be allowed fair for either party to quit his hold, 
if his opponent strikes, or makes play, in the above improper 
manner. 

Rule 5th. — If either party, when endeavouring to take hold, 
shall throw, or attempt to throw his opponent down,, when he 



RULES OF WRESTLING. 23 

is conscious that they have not both hold, the fall shall in- 
stantly be decided in favour of the injured party. 

Rule 6th. — If, when wrestling, the men get disengaged by 
their hands slipping over each other's head, and they remain 
opposite each other on terms of perfect equality, it shall be in 
the option of either party to leave go, and take hold again, 
as at their first meeting ; but if one of the parties only lose his 
grasp, it shall be deemed perfectly fair for the other to con- 
tinue the wrestle till he does so likewise, or the fall termi- 
nates. If both the parties during a struggle become disen- 
gaged, if one throw the other before they remain stationary or 
fronting each other, it shall be deemed a fair fall. 

Rule 7th. — After the men have both taken hold, if either of 
them quits it, either in endeavouring to save himself, by acci- 
dent, or by attempting to throw his adversary, he shall lose 
the fall, provided his adversary retains his own hold, and does 
not go down by that effort or manoeuvre, which is the imme- 
diate occasion or object of quitting the hold ; but if his adver- 
sary, though retaining his hold, goes to the ground without 
recovering himself, if it be not immediately, yet in such a 
manner as is obviously the consequence resulting from such 
manoeuvre, he shall win the fall. If the effort occasions both 
parties to lose their hold, and both or neither go down, it shall 
be deemed a wrestle over again. 

Rule 8th. — If both the men go down in such a manner that 
it cannot be clearly and distinctly ascertained which of them 
was first on the ground, it shall be deemed a wrestle over, or, 
as is provincially termed, a dogfall, and the decision shall be 
given without any regard to the circumstance of making play. 
A man's knees or hands, or either of them, touching the 
ground, shall be considered conclusive of his being down in 
all cases except he is fairly covering his man, and it is occa- 
sioned by the desire of making the fall easier to himself or his 
antagonist ; when such is the manifest intention, it shall not 
interfere with his claim to the fall. 

Rule 9th. — When the men are called into the ring, no agree- 



24 CORNISH AND DEVONSHIRE METHODS. 

ment shall be allowed to take place between them relative to 
one of them yielding the fall, without the sanction of the um- 
pire ; but if they wrestle fairly, they shall have liberty to divide 
what the conqueror shall win, as they think proper. 

Rule 10th. — If it is apparent that there is a private agree- 
ment between two wrestlers, and that the contest is not a fair 
one, the umpire, if it appear to him that the stander has pro- 
mised any remuneration to the other for lying down, may 
call him against the odd man ; but if there be no odd man, or 
if there be two standers only, the umpire may regulate the dis- 
tribution of the prize as he deems proper; or, in other words, 
so as to prevent any set of men making a mere property of the 
sum to be contended for. 

THE CORNISH AND DEVONSHIRE METHODS. 

The principal difference between these methods is, that 
kicking the shins is a part of the Devonshire and not of the 
Cornish. 

The Devonshire men, therefore, wrestle with their shoes on, 
in order not to break their toes in kicking ; and each takes 
advantage of this to bake the soles of his shoes, and thereby 
render his kicking as severe as possible. Thus, he who hap- 
pens to have the hardest shoes has a decided advantage. 

Each has also the privilege of bandaging his legs, which is 
liable to a similar objection. It often happens, however, that, 
after a severe match, the wrestlers leave the ring with the skin 
off their skins, almost from top to bottom. 

In other respects the two methods are the same : I need, 
therefore, describe only one — the Cornish, which the reader 
can convert into the Devonshire, according to the previous 
observations. 

THE CORNISH STYLE. 

The Cornish wrestling depends rather more on strength and 
endurance than the Cumberland. Nevertheless, great art and 



DRK8H. '25 

quickness are required in it ; and a moderate degree of strength, 
seconded by art, will be surer of success than much greater 
strength without it. 

No fall is " counted," unless both the shoulders come to the 
ground together. 



After stripping to the shirt, taking off the shoes, and tucking 
up the trousers (to prevent them getting entangled with the 
adversary's feet), the wrestlers put on a loose jacket, made of 
canvass, tied in front with two strings, and reaching as far down 
as the hips. The sleeves are made very loose for the conveni- 
ence of both parties in taking hold at the elbow or wrist,— 
Fig. 25. 



The strings, which are of the same length in all jackets, 
should be tied so as to leave the front of the jacket open, as 
this prevents the adversary taking so firm a hold as he could 
do if it were not quite so loose. Some wrestlers, in order to 

make the jacket as loose on them as possible, tie the strings 
only at the very ends. 



26 



CORNISH AND DEVONSHIRE METHODS. 



CHALLENGING. 

The usual mode of challenging is for one of the wrestlers to 
throw his hat into the ring, and any one who intends to 
wrestle him answers it in the same manner. 

POSITION BEFORE TAKING HOLD. 

Stand with the feet as wide as it is possible to do without 
losing strength; the right being foremost. Bend the knees 
well, &c, arffl lean forward. Hold your hands up before you; 
and keep a sharp look out, so as to be ready to take the most 
advantageous hold. — Fig. 26. 




26 



THE HOLD. 

The wrestlers hold each other by the jackets, and by nothing 
else ; but they are at liberty to alter their hold as often as they 
please. — Fig. 27. 

There are two principal holds, that for the " forehand-play," 
in which you are almost before the adversary, with your back 



THE HOLD. 



27 



27 




turned to him; and that for the " after-play/ 9 in which you 
are behind the adversary. 

Most wrestlers prefer the forehand-play. 

To get the hold for the forehand-play, you must, from the 
position before described, dart out your left hand at the adver- 
sary's right elbow or wrist, and hold fast by the jacket, and at 
the same instant fasten your right hand to the right side of 
his jacket, close above the hipbone, or put it round by the left 
side of his neck to his right shoulder. 

These movements of the two hands must be instantaneous ; 
and the moment they are executed, you must, keeping a firm 
hold, and throwing your weight forward, turn yourself round 
to the left, so as almost to get your back to your antagonist. 
Thus you will have the forehand-play, and he will have the 
after-play.— Fig. 28. 

Supposing that the adversary also attempts to take the fore- 
hand-play, and that you are both equally quick, he will lay 
hold of your elbow and side in the same time that you take 
hold of his, and you will be trying to turn your backs to each 



other at the same moment. This must be decided by strength 
and quickness. 

To get the hold for the after-play, seize the adversary's left 
collar with your right hand, and get your left band round bis 
back to his left loin. 

It will seldom happen that the adversary will oppose this. 

Whatever hold you take, the grasp of the hands should be 
firm, yet not so as to fatigue or prevent its being increased 
when necessary. 

MOVEMENTS TO BE TAKEN FK 



There are some movements which can be taken only from 
the forehand-play, and others only from the after-play. 

From the forehand play may be taken the outside -lock, the 
inside-lock, the cross-heave, the crosB-lock, and the cross- 
buttock. 

From the after-play come the back-clamp, the heave, the 
cross-heave, the double-lock, the pull-under, and the home- 
tang. 



MOVEMENTS FSOM FOREHAND-PLAY, &C. 29 

We may suppose the reader to have the forehand-play ; and 
may describe those movements which come from that po- 

To take the outside- lock. — After having twisted yourself 
round, so as to turn your hack to your adversary, throw your 
right leg over the outside of hia right leg, and twist your foot 
round it, so that your toe cornea to the inside of his ancle ; 
and while you hold so close with your hands as almost to lift 
him off the ground with your right hip, pull him over his 
right side by twisting yourself to the left. As both of you 
keep at once turning and falling, he will come to his back, 
and you will fail upon him.— Fig. 29. 



If you do not succeed in your attempt to throw the adver- 
sary, you can rest with your leg hanging over bis. 

To stop the outsi ile -lock, the adversary, if his head be under 
your arm, will take the inside-clamp, by striking the inside 
of your left shin with the outside of his left foot, pushing 
your's forward, and twisting you round, so as to make you fall 
on your back. But if his head be not under your arm, he will 
mostly prefer taking the outside -clamp, by throwing his left 
leg over your left thigh, and pressing you either backward or 
forward. 



30 CORNISH AND DEVONSHIRE METHODS. 

If he throw you backward, he will try, as you both come to 
the ground, to turn himself bo as to fall on his left aide, and 
make you fall on both your shoulders. If he throw you forward 
(which may be done with either the outside or inside-lock), he 
can, by pressing the back of your neck with his left hand, oblige 
you to fall on your head. 

The inside-lock may be taken so as to throw either backward 
or forward. 

To take the inside-lock forward, twist your right leg round 
the adversary's left by passing it between bis legs, and bringing 
the toe round to the front of his shin, and then proceed as in 
the outside-lock.— Fig. 30. 



To stop the inside-lock forward, the adversary will either 
pull strongly with hia left arm round your loins, or will press 
against the back of your head with his left hand, which will 
bring your head to the ground. — Fig. 31 . 

If you find you cannot throw your antagonist with the inaide- 
lock forward, slip the lock, and take the cross-buttock. 

To take the inside-lock backward, after twisting your right 
leg round the adversary's left, turn yourself forcibly to the 



MOVBMBNTS FROM FOREHAND-l'LAY, &C. 



right, and you will both tall backward; he on hie back, and 
you on your right shoulder. 

The way to atop this, i» with the double-lock, which the 
adversary will execute by throwing his right heel inside your 
left, and pressing you backward (fig. 32) ; or, with the heave, 




which may also be used as a defence against the inside-look 
forward, and the outaide-lock. 
The bip is the lame as the cross-buttock, 



32 

To take the cross-heave from the forehand-play, slip your 
right hand round your adversary's right side, to his left loin, 
so as to have htm under your right arm; and slip the left hand 
along his belly, so as to get hold of his left elbow. You may 
thus throw him heels over head. — Fig. 33. 




This is the only throw in which both parties are in exactly 
the same position. All, therefore, depends ujion the prompti- 
tude with which the position is made availahle. 

To stop this, the adversary will take the hip or cross-but- 
tock, by throwing the right leg over yours, as before de- 
scribed ; or, the cross-lock, which is performed by putting 
your right beel round the inside of the adversary's right heel, 
pulling his right arm, and pushing him backwards. — Fig 34. 



HOVBMBNTH FROM AFTER-PLAY. 33 

There U no regular way of stopping this. 

I may now suppose the reader to have the after-play. 

I have described the back-clamps as guards against the out- 
milc-lock, cross -buttock, and hip. Bnt they are also used ai 
throwt, of themselves. 

There is no regular way of stopping the clamps; but if the 
outside clamp be taken below the knee, it may be stopped by 
walking one step forward. 

To take the heave from the after-play (by which is meant 
throwing your adversary backwards over your left shoulder, 
and falling on it, while he falls on both of his), you must hold 
firmly with both hands, lift your adversary well up, pull 
strongly with your right arm, and, as you come to the ground, 
turn yourself so as to fall on your left shoulder, and make him 
fall on both his.— Fig. 36. 



To stop the heave, the adversary will take the cross-lock, 
strike your standing leg,* or take the hip. 



34 CORNIBH AND DEVONSHIRE METHODS. 

To take the cross-heave from the after-play, remove your 
right hand from your adversary's collar, and pan it round 
behind his back to bis left loin, as was described for the 
forehand-play. But you cannot take it from the after-play if 
the adversary hold your elbow. 

The pull-under is performed as follows : — Move your right 
hand from his collar to his left elbow, pass your left hand 
under his chest to hie left loin, and make him take the inside- 
lock. 

To stop the pull-under, remove your right hand. 

The home-tang is taken by getting both the hands round 
under the adversary's chest to his left side. —Fig. 36. 



To stop the home-tang, withdraw your right hand, or, if you 
wish to throw, take the hip. 

To take the double-lock, turn round, and take the left-forc- 
band-play. 



33 



BOXING. 



UTILITY OF BOXING, 

The art of boxing is analogous to the use of the cestus 
among the Greeks. That, however, was a leathern gauntlet, 
plated with iron to render the blows heavy, and constituted a 
dangerous and cruel practice. As the victory was often stained 
with blood, it was never held in high esteem by the Greeks, 
who had none of the sanguinary ferocity of the Romans. 

The Greeks, as well as the Romans, found the encourage- 
ment of gymnastic exercises essential to their national security 
and honour. They found in it also an invigorator of the public 
mind, by creating in it a love for whatever is athletic, manly 
and brave. 

Self-defence, indeed, is essential to the safety of man as a 
social being ; nor is it less requisite to him as an individual. 

Now, there is a saying, no less old than true, that " nothing 
is worth doing that is not worth doing well.' 9 If self-defence be 
at all requisite — if it tend to the protection of life or property 
— then it is worth acquiring in its natural form, together with 
all the art it will admit of. 

A man's bare arm is his natural weapon, at all times by his 
side, ready for his protection ; and where art is united to mus- 
cular strength, it is extremely powerful and efficacious. 

That any sanction given to its use will make that use more 
frequent, is probable : but then it will only substitute it, in 
common cases, for some more dangerous practice or weapon. 

Let a contrast be drawn between the fair contest with the fist, 
and the modes of fight prevalent even in some parts of this 
country; or let us contemplate the offensive and defensive 

d 2 



36 BOXING. 

forms of attack in foreign countries ; and then it will be seen 
whether a knowledge of pugilism is not a public benefit, as 
well as an individual security. 

In our northern counties, where boxing is but imperfectly 
understood, and its laws are unknown, they fight up and 
down; that is, when one gets the other down, he who is 
uppermost throttles, kicks, or jumps on him who is down, 
till he has disabled or killed him. This, too, is pretty much 
the case in Ireland ; and, indeed, all over the world, except in 
those parts of England where regulated boxing is in use. 

In Ireland, men usually fight with sticks. In this mode of 
combat, a man may, at the onset, receive a mortal blow; 
whereas, in boxing, exhaustion frequently causes the weaker 
party to yield, and " give in ;" and thus disputes are settled 
by a less dangerous, though more protracted, mode of fighting. 
In the same country, owing to ignorance of the generous rules 
of boxing, and the spirit it inspires, a man, who conceives him- 
self aggrieved by another, does not scruple to waylay him, and 
murder him with a bludgeon or a pitchfork, or to set fire to 
his cabin, and burn him or his family in their sleep. 

Not less repugnant to humanity are the barbarous contests 
in some parts of the United States of America. Kicking, biting, 
and even gouging, disgrace their inhuman fights. The latter 
is perpetrated by grappling the head of an opponent, and with 
the thumbs forcing his eyes out of the sockets. Nor is this 
all. The following is a short narrative of an American combat. 
— " A. one morning met B. coming from a fight. ' Heyday ! 
man,' he exclaimed; 'your eye is hanging on your cheek.' 
' Yes,' replied B. ; ' but I guess I've been a match for the 
rascal.' And holding forth his hand, he exhibited an indubi- 
table proof that, with a gripe and a wrench, he had unmanned 
his adversary." 

In order further to form a correct judgment on this subject, 
it is also necessary to reflect on the different modes of assuag- 
ing the revengeful passions adopted by the lower orders on the 
Continent. There, it is not unusual to behold the long knife, 



UTILITY OP BOXING. 3/ 

or the stiletto, carrying with it the mortal castigation of an 
offence. 

What a contrast exists between all these barbarous modes of 
fighting, and the order which prevails whenever a fight occurs 
in this country ! Here a ring is immediately formed, — seconds 
to each of the combatants step forward, — the surrounding 
throng maintain " fair play," — and the business is settled with 
as much order and propriety as the circumstances of the case 
will admit of. 

Thus boxing is really useful to society as a refinement in 
natural combat. — In England, it is curious and interesting to 
see the beneficent rules of boxing affecting all the contests even 
of children. In passing a field at Paddington, I one day ob- 
served a juvenile fight. It was a serious affair : for there they 
were — the four alone, and no spectator, but* I myself, who 
came upon them accidentally. They were above being dis- 
turbed by an intruder : they did not even notice me. Each 
little antagonist had his little second, who, after a round, fell 
on one knee, and presented the other in the rectangular form 
adapted for a seat, to which, at the close of each round, he 
perseveringly pulled his principal, who sat there, puffing and 
blowing as if he had been engaged in mortal combat. In one 
of the rounds, one of the principals fell, when the other was 
instantly withdrawn by his second, and the prostrate one lifted 
from the ground, and placed on the knee of his second. The 
amusing part of the battle was, that the fighters seemed to be 
more worn out. by the perpetual and determined interference 
of the seconds, than by the fight itself; nor, though they most 
exemplarily submitted to it, did they seem to be much com- 
forted by each having his face ever and anon wiped by his 
second's wet and dirty pocket-handkerchief! 

Immoral effects have, however, been imputed to boxing. 
The gallows, it is said, has been supplied from the ring. But 
this, it has been well observed, means nothing more in sub- 
stance than that these venerable institutions are contempo- 
raneous. Pugilism includes nothing essentially vicious or im- 



38 



BOXING. 



moral ; and, if we may reason and decide from abuse, where 
are we to halt? 

It is true, that boxing-matches, being proscribed meetings, 
unattended by any peace-officer, are particularly favourable to 
the congregation of thieves and other ruffians. But this is 
evidently not the fault of the boxing- match, but of the circum- 
stances attending it. Boxing-matches, however, are not advo- 
cated, but deprecated here. 

I will not answer, says a friend to boxing, for the purity of 
a congregation even at > a gymnasium or five Vcourt (where 
boxing is merely an instructive display); but I am bold to 
risk the opinion, that a blackguard is as likely to acquire 
a sense of justice and fairness there, as at a love-feast in the 
recesses of Methodism. 

In fact, it is to pugilistic schools, and their displays, that 
we owe " the whole of that noble system of ethics — fair play, 
which distinguishes and elevates our commonalty, and which 
stern and impartial reason herself must hail as one of the 
honors of Britain.' 9 Hence it is that, in regular combats, may 
be witnessed the most noble forbearance, in one or other, or in 
both of the contending parties — a forbearance which would do 
honour to combats of another rank. 

" The display," says Payne Knight, " of manly intrepidity, 
firmness, gallantry, activity, strength, and presence of mind, 
which these contests call forth, is an honour to the English 
nation, and such as no man needs be ashamed of viewing 
with interest, pride and delight ; and we may safely predict, 
that if the magistrates, through a mistaken notion of pre- 
serving the public peace, succeed in suppressing them, there 
will be an end of that sense of honour and spirit of gallantry, 
which distinguishes the common people of this country from 
that of all others." 

To those who decline boxing as vulgar, its advocates sarcas- 
tically reply : — There can be no objection to restrict boxing to 
the vulgar and inferior classes of society, where sensibility and 
resentments cannot be supposed so refined, so rational, and so 



UTILITY OP BOXING. 39 

permanent, as those of their high-born and educated superiors. 
In regard to them, we submissively give our assent to the 
indispensable use of the pistol and small sword, and to the 
unquestionable rationality of affording, to that man who has 
injured another in the highest degree, the opportunity of con- 
ferring on him the inferior injury of depriving him of life. 

There is another view of this subject, which deserves serious 
consideration. 

Though agriculture, manufactures, commerce, the arts and 
sciences, constitute the best pursuits of human life, yet a na- 
tion exclusively devoted to these, and without the means of 
defence, would exist in an uncertain, dependent, or slavish 
state. From the inhabitants of every country, therefore, a 
portion is selected, whose duty it must be to defend the 
liberties and secure the property of the whole. Hence the 
military and naval professions. 

But, in order to fit the people for these, and to prevent the 
too general indulgence of effeminacy and dread of enterprise, 
it is necessary to encourage the manly and athletic sports and 
contests, which invigorate the human frame, inspire contempt 
of personal suffering, and enable men to defend that which 
they could not otherwise enjoy. 

There can in fact be no better preparation for making 
effective combatants in our army and navy, than the national 
practice of boxing. " It teaches a man to look his adversary 
in the face while fighting ; to bear the threatening looks and 
fierce assaults of an antagonist without flinching; to watch 
and parry his intended blow ; to return it with quickness, and 
to follow it up with resolution and effect : it habituates him to 
sustain his courage under bodily suffering; and, when the 
conflict has ceased, to treat his enemy with humanity. The 
feeling of superiority which the practice of boxing gives an 
Englishman over a foreigner in private quarrel, is carried into 
the field of battle ; for the boxer cannot think of turning his 
back on a foe whom he has always deemed his inferior in com- 
bat. 9 ' To this feeling, and to the habit of fighting from boy- 



40 BOXING. 

hood, hand to hand and face to face, more even than to 
superior bodily strength and courage, may be reasonably 
attributed the superiority of English soldiers at the charge, — 
of English sailors in the act of boarding. 

PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF BOXERS. 

The frames of boxers in general differ, in appearance, from 
those of most other men. They are formed both for active 
exertion and for the endurance of suffering in a severe degree. 
[ It might indeed almost be said of boxers, as it has been of 
poets, that a man must be born one. Certainly, if he be not 
in possession of certain physical peculiarities, he cannot excel 
in his art. 

The eyes of professed pugilists are generally small. Their 
necks are large. Their arms are muscular, with strong well- 
turned shoulders. Their chests are in general expanded ; and 
the backs and loins of some not only exhibit an unusual degree 
of strength, but a great portion of anatomical beauty. The 
* hips, thighs and legs of a few are remarkable for symmetry. 
When boxers do not stand firm on their legs, and are thin 
about the loins, it indicates weakness ; and where anything 
like struggling occurs in a contest, they frequently lose the 
battle from want of strength. The hands of pugilists in 
general are large, and should be firm. 

ART ESSENTIAL IN BOXING. 

Many intelligent persons have been of opinion that boxing 
depends more on strength than does the use of the sword; but 
it is certain that art is here still more important than strength. 
Strength, undoubtedly, is what the boxer ought to set out 
with — it is the fundamental quality ; but, without art, he will 
have little success. A less degree of art will prove far more 
effective than a considerably greater degree of strength. Defi- 
ciency of strength may be greatly supplied by art ; want of 
art will have but heavy and unwieldly succour from strength. 

The strength of man chiefly consists of the power of bis 



POSITION OF THE BODY. 41 

muscles. These, with the bones, form the strings and levers 
which execute the different motions of the body. Now, by art, 
a man may give additional force to them, as will be shewn in 
the sequel. 

We proceed to more minute details, which will be found to 
be perfectly illustrated by the Plates. That entire confidence 
may be reposed in the guidance which they afford, will readily 
be believed, when we state that Harry Holt, by far the most 
intelligent and skilful boxer of his time, stood, during two 
successive days, for the drawings from which they were made. 
I owe it equally to this able man and to the reader to say, that 
if the latter desires instruction in this branch of exercise, he 
cannot do better than apply to Mr. Holt. 

POSITION OF THE BODY. 

The position of the body is of the greatest consequence in 
boxing. Here, the centre of gravity must be well considered ; 
for if, conformably with that, the weight of the body be 
adjusted, and its proper equilibrium preserved, it will stand 
much firmer against opposing force. — Fig. 37 (plate.) 

This, in the first place, depends upon a proper distance 
between the feet ; which is, therefore, the first thing a boxer 
ought to regard. Without it, indeed, all his efforts will prove 
abortive. 

In order, then, to obtain the true position, the left leg must 
be advanced to some distance before the right; and this carries 
also forward the left side and left arm. 

This is the true position for the right-handed man, in order 
that, after having, with his left arm, stopped a right-handed 
blow from his opponent, he may have equal readiness and 
greater power of stepping in with his right hand's returning 
blow. 

The feet should, for this general position, be about two feet 
apart, and one foot should be placed at somewhat less than a 
right angle in relation to the other. 

E 



42 BOXING. 

The left foot is to be kept straight, that is, pointing to the 
adversary. The right toe is to be sufficiently turned out, to 
resist any shock the adversary may give, and yet sufficiently 
in, to allow the body to be thrown forward, by bending up 
the instep. 

The knees must be kept slightly bent, and very pliable, that 
advances and retreats may be the quicker. 

The body, for this general position, should be erect ; that is, 
the weight should be thrown equally on both feet. 

The neck should be sunk. 

The head is to be kept backward, and the eyes on the 
enemy's. 

The elbows should be kept as close to each other as is con- 
sistent with their free action, in order to cover the body. The 
boxer, however, must be careful not to force the elbows toge- 
ther by muscular exertion, as this would soon tire the musles 
of the arms. 

The arms should be extended about half their length. 

The left arm, as already said, must be most advanced, and 
the right arm kept closest to the body. 

The fists should be raised about as high as the chin, the 
left being a little the highest. 

They should be so far apart as to allow them to pass each 
other freely without touching, and no further. 

The fists are formed by laying the tips of the fingers in the 
principal cavity of the palm, formed by shutting the hand. 
The thumb is then laid over the first joint of the first finger, 
and its tip comes nearly up to the second joint of the second. 

The fists should not be very firmly shut till they are to be 
used. 

In this position, then, advancing is effected by a step forward 
with the foot which is before, and by following it with that 
behind. 

Retreating is effected by a step backward with the foot 
which is behind, and by following it with that which is before. 







I. 






V 



:js 



■* fir 



x 



I 



43 



MODE OF STRIKING. 

Give your antagonist aa little time as possible to direct bis 
aim. 

For tbis purpose, and to procure an opening, it is sometimes 
useful to confuse your antagonist, by making feints where you 
do not intend to hit. 

When you. are not striking, it is advisable to move the arms 
to and fro (not to their utmost distance), so as to render 
them supple, and to enable you to throw in a blow more 
unexpectedly. 

The moment you see any part of your adversary's body 
open, strike at it; for it is of course an object to hit your 
adversary oftener than he hits you. 

It is of the greatest importance to avoid giving to your 
enemy the slightest notice where you intend to strike him. 

For the left and the right-hand blow, see Figs. 38 and 39 
(plate.) 

To get a blow in, make a step forward with the left foot, and 
throw the weight on it ; at the same time propping the body 
up from behind by means of the right toe. 

The instep of the right foot is bent up at every blow, though 
more for the right-hand blow than for the left. 

The whole body, however, must be thrown forward when a 
blow is struck, as though the intention were to throw a weight 
off the shoulder of the fist that strikes; at the same time 
swinging the shoulder and hip round with great velocity. 

In this attitude, the whole body inclines forward; so that 
we find, from the outside of the right ankle to the shoulder 
is formed a straight but inclined line. Thus, the right leg and 
thigh, in a slanting line, strongly prop up the whole body from 
behind ; and this is the strongest position a man can contrive. 
It is such as we generally use in forcing doors, pushing for- 
ward any weight, or resisting strength ; for while we have aU 
the direct force of the right side, the muscles of the left side, 

e 2 



44 BOXING. 

which bend the body forward, bring over the left thigh the 
gravitating part which thus augments the force. 

It is usual, in attacking, to lead with the left first, and let 
the right follow : but too frequent a repetition of this prepares 
the enemy. 

A blow should be struck as straight and as quickly as 
possible. 

Straight blows come quicker than round ones, because they 
have not so far to come; and they are stronger, because they 
come directly from the centre of gravity. The quickness of 
the blows adds greatly to their force. 

At the moment of striking, the fist should be clenched as 
firmly as possible. By this means the muscles of the arm will 
be braced, and this will strengthen the wrist. The velocity of 
the blow will also be greatly augmented by it. Thus, the 
power of the arm will be considerably greater than if the hand 
were but slightly closed. 

The muscles which give this additional force to the arm, in 
shutting the hand, are the flexors of the fingers ; the extensors 
being the opposite muscles, as they open or expand the same. 

In striking, however, or using any violent effort with the 
hands, these two kinds of muscles contribute to the same action. 
Thus, if any one close the left hand forcibly, and clap his right 
hand upon the left arm, he will feel that all the muscles of it 
swell more or less. 

Hence it follows, that muscles, calculated for different 
offices, yet aid each other in great efforts. This is of much 
advantage toward that artificial force in boxing, which beats 
much superior strength where art is wanting. 

The fist must not, however, be clenched in the firmest 
manner till the moment when you intend to use it, as such a 
degree of exertion cannot long be continued. 

It is proper also to bear on the heel, at the same time draw- 
ing under the toes, so as to brace all the muscles of the leg ; 
but not till the moment when you intend to strike a blow, 
or expect to be attacked. 



MOST EFFECTIVE BLOWS. 45 

By thus delivering up the power to the muscles of the 
advanced side, which, in a strong contraction, brings the body 
forward, the motion communicated is such, that, if the hand 
at that moment be firmly shut, and the blow at the same 
instant pushed forward in. a straight line with the moving 
body, the shock given by the stroke will be able to overcome 
a force, not thus artfully contrived, twenty times as great. 

Thus, it is in our power to give additional strength and 
force to our bodies, so as to render us far superior to men of 
more natural strength, not seconded by art. 

It is necessary to be instantly collected after you have struck, 
and to recover your guard. 

A blow should never be struck without its sequel being 
thought of. This may, indeed, be necessarily a guard; but it 
may be a second and far more advantageous blow. 



MOST EFFECTIVE BLOWS. 

We may now consider what are the most hurtful blows, 
and such as, consequently, contribute most to gaining a battle. 
This is a most important consideration to boxers, and claims 
their particular attention. 

Very few of those who fight know why a blow on any par- 
ticular part has such effects ; yet, by experience, they know it 
has these effects, and by them they are directed to the proper 
parts, — under the ear, between the eyebrows, and about the 
stomach. 

The blow under the ear is considered to be as dangerous as 
any that is given, if it light between the angle of the lower 
jaw and the neck ; because, in this part, there are two kinds 
of blood-vessels — arteries and veins, of great size ; the former 
bringing blood immediately from the heart to the head, and 
the latter carrying it immediately back. 

Now, it is evident, that if a man receive a blow on these 
vessels, part of the blood proceeding from the heart to the 
head must be forced back, whilst the other part i* driven for- 



46 BOXING. 

cibly to the head ; and in the same manner, part of the blood 
returning from the head to the heart must be forced into the 
latter, whilst the other is driven forcibly to the head. 

Thus the blood-vessels are immediately overcharged, and 
the sinuses of the brain overloaded. The man accordingly 
loses sensation, and the blood often runs from his ears, mouth, 
and nose, owing to the quantity forced with impetuosity into 
the smaller vessels, the coats of which being too tender to 
resist such a charge, instantly break, and cause the effusion 
of blood wherever the superficial skin is thinnest. 

This is not at all : the heart, being overcharged with the blood 
forced back on the succeeding blood ascending from its left 
ventricle, stops its progress; whilst the blood returning from 
the head is violently pushed into its right auricle, so that the 
heart labours under a violent surcharge of blood, which, how- 
ever, goes off as the parts recover themselves, and are able to 
push the blood onward. 

Blows between the eyebrows contribute greatly to victory. 
This part being contused between two hard bodies, viz. the 
fist and 08 frontis, there ensues a violent echymosis, or extra- 
vasation of blood, which falls immediately into the eyelids; 
and they, being of a lax texture, incapable of resisting this 
influx of Wood, swell almost instantaneously, and this intu- 
mescence soon obstructs the sight. The man, thus artfully 
hood-winked, is consequently beat about at his. adversary's 
discretion. 

Blows on the stomach are very hurtful, as the sympathetic 
nerves, their ganglia and plexuses, the great artery called 
aorta, the diaphragm or midriff, and the lungs, share in the 
injury. 

The injury which the diaphragm suffers from blows under 
the breast-bone is considerable, because it is thereby brought 
into a strong convulsive state, which produces pain. 

Thus excited, the diaphragm also lessens the cavity of the 
thorax, whereby the lungs are, in a great measure, deprived of 
their liberty, and the quantity of air retained in them is so 



MOST EFFECTIVE BLOWS. 4/ 

forcibly pushed from them, that it causes a difficulty of respi- 
ration, which cannot be overcome till the convulsive motion of 
the diaphragm ceases. 

Violent blows or contusions in this, which is called the 
epigastric region, when they do not immediately destroy the 
individual, depress, in a remarkable degree, the vital energies. 
The animal heat is uncommonly diminished, the surface is 
cold and pale, the pulse scarcely perceptible, and the breathing 
feeble and very slow. 

An effect is produced by concussion of the semilunar gang- 
lion, in some respects similar to that which follows concussion 
of the brain; in the former, the vital actions are either ex- 
hausted or destroyed ; in the latter, the mental operations are 
suspended. 

A blow on the stomach " doubles up' 1 the boxer, and occa- 
sions that gasping and crowing which sufficiently indicate the 
cause of the injury; a little more severe, and it is instantly 
fatal. A man, broken on the wheel, suffers dreadful blows, 
and the bones are fractured, but life endures : the coup de grace 
is the blow on the stomach. 

It is, therefore, recommended to those who box, never to 
charge their stomachs with much food on the day of combat. 
By observing this precaution, they will avoid the extraordinary 
compressing of the descending aorta, and, in a great measure, 
preserve the stomach itself from the blows to which it must 
be the more exposed, when distended with food, and the 
consequence of which must be a vomiting of blood, caused by 
the rupture of blood-vessels; whereas, the empty stomach, 
yielding to the blow, is much less affected by it. Hence it is 
recommended rather to take some slight stimulant into the 
comparatively empty stomach, which, by its exciting the fibres, 
may contract it into smaller compass. 

The boxer may render blows on this part in some degree 
less hurtful by drawing in the belly, holding the breath, and 
bending the thorax, or upper part of the chest, over the navel, 
when the stroke is coming. 



48 BOXING. 



GUARDING. 



Watch the inclination of your adversary's head, and the 
direction of his eyes; as upon these depend the aim of 
the fit. 

If the enemy aim with his right hand, the guard is generally 
with the left, and vice versa. 

Blows aimed at any part higher than two or three inches 
above the pit of the stomach, are parried by striking upward 
and outward. — Fig. 40 (plate.) 

Blows aimed any lower than two or three inches above the 
pit of the stomach, are guarded by so covering the side with 
the elbow, that it shall secure the ribs and loins, while the 
fore-arm protects the stomach. — Fig. 41 (plate.) 

In other words, blows aimed above the arms when in the 
general position, are parried by striking upward and outward ; 
and blows aimed below the arms, by laying the arms as above 
described. 

In stopping blows aimed at the lower part of the body, some 
recommend to strike them down. The advantage of this is, 
that it is not so much out of the common way of guarding as 
the preceding ; but the disadvantage is that you may guard 
too soon, and thereby leave yourself open, which is never the 
case with the other method. 



GLOBING. 

If your enemy be more powerful than you are, you should 
not close with him, unless you are very expert at the cross- 
buttock, &c. To prevent his closing with you, as soon as you 
expect him to do so, you must instantly strike at him in the 
face or body with great quickness, by way of keeping him 
busy, — and retreat; — then advance again, — and so on, to 
perplex him. 

All this, however, may not succeed in keeping him out ; in 




1 



3 



^ 
^ 

^ 

^ 
« 



i 



js 



* 




<3 






1 



CLOSING. — BOTTOM. 49 

which case, if you cannot slip down, you must not throw away 
your strength by struggling with him for the throw, further 
than endeavouring, as hereafter described, to prevent his 
getting you in dangerous positions for the cross-buttock or 
outside lock. 

The cross-buttock may be performed when you and your 
antagonist happen to come into contact with your sides 
together, — no matter which, provided you look the same way. 
—Fig. 42 (plate.) 

Suppose that your right side comes in contact with his left ; 
you lay your right arm over his neck, and take hold of his 
right shoulder; seize his right wrist with your left hand, and 
draw it as forcibly down, and to the left, as possible ; place 
your right hip under his crutch, and your right leg close to 
his right leg; hoist him up as though you were going to throw 
him over your head; but when you get him a sufficient height, 
swing him right round on his back, and fall upon him. 

If your adversary is so heavy that you eannot easily lift him 
from the ground to throw him over your hip (which, however, 
will very seldom be the case), you had better give him the 
outside lock. This (supposing you still have your right side 
to his left) is accomplished by swinging your right leg against 
the outside of his, and throwing him over it. This fall, 
however, is not so effective as the cross-buttock. 

If he attempt this with you, you must (supposing you have 
still your right side in contact with his left) place your left 
knee in his ham, throw all your weight backward, and attempt 
to pull him over in that direction. But if this is to be done, 
it must be done before he hoists you on his back ; for when he 
has done this, all is done. 

BOTTOM. 

Strength and art have been both mentioned as the principal 
requisites for a boxer ; but there is another, which is equally 
necessary, and without which no pugilist can be complete. 
This is denominated bottom. 



50 BOXING. 

In constituting bottom, there are required two things — wind, 
and spirit or courage. Wind, indeed, may be obtained by a 
proper attention to diet and exercise; but it is spirit that keeps 
the boxer upon his legs. Without this substantial requisite, 
both art and strength will be of little avail. 



The following rules are nearly those which were drawn up by 
Mr. Broughton, and which continue to be generally acted upon. 

1. That a square of a yard in extent be chalked in the 
middle of the stage; and at every fresh set-to, after a fall, or 
being parted from the rails, each second is to bring his man 
to the side of the square, and place him opposite to the other; 
and, till they are fairly set-to at the lines, it shall not be lawful 
for one to strike the other. 

2. That, in every main battle, as soon as the men are 
stripped, no person whatever shall be upon the stage, except 
the principals and their seconds ; the same rule being to be 
observed in by-battles, except that in the latter, a gentleman 
is allowed to be upon the stage to keep decorum, provided 
always he do not interfere in the battle; and whoever presumes 
to infringe these rules is to be turned immediately out of the 
place. 

3. That no champion is to be deemed beaten, unless he fail 
in coming, or being brought up by his second, to the side of 
the square, in the limited time of half a minute ; or that his 
own second declares him beaten; but no second is to be 
allowed to ask his man's adversary any questions, or advise 
him to give up. 

4. That, to prevent disputes, in every main battle, the 
principals shall, on coming on the stage, choose, from among 
the gentlemen present, two umpires, who shall absolutely 
decide all disputes that may arise about the battle; and, if the 
two umpires cannot agree, the said umpires are to choose a 
third, who is to determine it. 

5. That no person is to hit his adversary when he is down, 



SIMPLER METHOD OF BOXING. 



51 



or seize him by the ham, the breeches, or any part below the 
waist ; a man on his knees being to be reckoned down. 
These rules form the code of boxing. 



SIMPLER METHOD OF BOXING. 

The foregoing is one of the'most usual methods of boxing, 
and is used by most of the principal boxers. I shall, never- 
theless, subjoin the more simple method, which, though not 
quite so complete as a means of defence, is far easier of 
acquirement. It indeed renders a man's strength more avail- 
able in one month .than other methods do in two — a propor- 
tion, however, which gradually diminishes, though not very 
quickly. 

The difference of position according to this method, consists 
in the legs being much further apart ; the knees, more bent ; 
and the hands, closer to the face. — Fig. 43. 



43 




When u blow is struck with one hand, the other is held 
opposite the note. — Fig. 44 and 45. 




There is only one position of guarding in this method. It 
is formed by throwing back the body, raising the right elbow 
and throwing it across (Fig. 46), so that the point of it is 



SIMPLER METHOD OF BOXING. 



53 



opposite the nose and mouth ; laying the left arm over the 
pit of the stomach; and throwing the head over the right 
shoulder. The great distance between the legs permits the 
body to he well thrown back. 

This guard admits of a capital return in the Mendoza style, 
by instantly throwing the body forward, and chopping down 
with the right fist. — (Fig. 47.) To avoid this, it is always 



47 




advisable to fall back to the position of guarding, the instant 
after striking a blow. 

In rallying, or, in common words, when one attacks the 
other with a quick succession of blows, right and left, first 
advancing one side and then the other, the plan of guarding is 
a little changed. To guard against the right hand blow in 
rallying, the left leg is thrown back ; the right arm is thrown 
out at full length, and rather across the body, the first being 
as high' as the face ; and the left arm protects the mark. — 



54 



BOXING. 



(Fig. 48.) As the adversary again advances the left side, the 
right leg is thrown back, and the hands change their offices.— 



48 




(Fig. 49). Thus you continue to retreat until you find a 
favourable opportunity of returning a blow. 



49 




55 



METHODS OF DEFENCE AGAINST 
BRUTE FORCE. 



As in this work it is my object to teach the complete art of 
defence, I shall introduce the following method, by which a 
gentleman may protect himself against ruffianly attacks. 



In an encounter with a countryman, it is advisable not to 
close and wrestle with him, but to keep him at a distance; for 
the generality of countrymen are much better wrestlers than 
boxers. 

It frequently happens that they strike round, or in a semi- 
circular sweep from either side ; and that with such violence, 
that, if they miss their aim, they throw themselves to the 
ground. A good boxer, therefore, may always take advantage 
of the notice which, by his slow and awkward movements, a 
countryman gives, that he intends to strike him, and with 
which hand, in order to step back (Fig. 50) ; and while he 
permits the countryman to throw himself forward in a semi- 
circular direction, he may strike out straight at his head. — 
Fig. 51. 

If it should be necessary to stop his blows at all, it should 
be done as represented in Fig. 52. There the countryman is 
supposed to have struck a blow with his right hand, and the 
boxer to have guarded it with his left hand, by knocking the 



blow down. This helps to throw the countryman out of 
balance, and gives a good opportunity for a return blow. 




AGAINST BRUTS FORCE. 




When one man intends to take another prisoner, he gene- 
rally seizes him by the collar, and an escape may often he 
effected in the following way. — Remain quiet for a few minutes 
till the enemy somewhat relaxes the severity of his grasp. 
Then, supposing he holds you with his right hand, suddenly 
seize it with your right, and twist it round so as to turn the 

53 



58 



METHODS OF DEFENCE 



outer or little finger side of his wrist upward, and, at the same 
time, let your left arm fall heavily on the middle of his right. 
If you do but succeed in twisting the hand round, the rascal is 
at your mercy. — Fig. 53. 

If, on the contrary, you wish to take a man prisoner, in 
such a way as to preclude the possibility of his doing you any 
injury, seize one of his hands with both yours; raise it up 
high enough to allow you to pop under his arm, holding his 
hand firmly all the while ; and you will thus be behind him, 
having one of his arms twisted behind his back in a very 
uncomfortable way. — Fig. 54. 



54 




In justice to the reader, however, we must observe that some 
of these tricks (and particularly this one) are so well known 
among ruffians, as to be very difficult of performance upon 
them by gentlemen. 

The method of turning a man out of a room, by lifting him 
almost off the ground by the collar and back of his trousers, 
is so well known as not to need description here. — We shall 
only observe, that unless the intruder be very far inferior in 
strength and weight, the thing cannot be done. 



AGAINST BRUTE FORCE. 



59 



There is another method of turning a person oat, as repre- 
sented in Fig. 55. With your left hand seize his left wrist ; 



55 




twist it so as to turn upward its palmar side; pass your right 
hand under his arm, and grasp his collar high up and firmly ; 
and hold your own arm stiff, with the elbow turned rather 
upward, the better to bear the weight of the delinquent's 
arm, which must be so pressed down by your other hand, as 
to make him stand on his toes. This method is liable to the 
same objection as the last. 

If a man threaten to assault you, and you think it necessary 
at once to put him down, step quickly close up to him, and a 
little to one side (fig. 56) ; throw your leg round behind both 
his, and strike or push him forcibly on the breast. Care must 
be taken in the execution of this, that the leg and arm move 
together, for it is only by this cross action that it can succeed. 



f 2 



S ART OF FALLING DOWN. 



THB AST OF FALLING DOWN. 

It may appear very simple to say, that the instant a mu 
feels himself falling in any particular direction, he should 
throw out bis hands in that direction, in order to save his 




THE ART OF FALLING E 



head. But still, judging from the very few instances in which 
this is done, it does appear necessary to enforce it upon the 
attention ; for which purpose I have given Fig*. 57, 58, 59. 




62 



THE SHILELAH. 



I have placed this first among the exercises of the stick, not 
on account of its excellences, hut because it is easily acquired, 
and less restricted by arbitrary rules than those which follow. 

The stick used is about four feet long. It is grasped at 
about a third of its length, which third is appropriated to the 
defence of the fore-arm, elbow, and right side of the head. It 
is not a very scientific amusement. 

Figure 60 represents coming on guard. 

60 




The first object is generally to knock the hat off, in order 
to get at the head; and it is represented in Fig. 61. 

In striking a blow at the right side of the head, the handle 
of the stick passes outside of the elbow ; and by thus flying 
swiftly in an opposite direction to the point, adds greatly to 
the force of the blow. — Fig. 62. 



THE BLOW AT THE HEAD. 



63 



61 




This blow is stopped by throwing up the little finger third of 
the stick, appropriated, as already said, to the defence of the 
right side of the head, the fore-arm, and the elbow. — Same 
figure. 

62 




64 



THB SHILELAH. 



In the blow at the left side of the head, the handle of the 
stick passes inside the elbow. — Fig. 63. 

63 




A blow at the right side of the body is guarded by throwing 
the point of the stick in a semicircular direction downward, 
and outward to the right. — Fig. 64. 

64 




THIS BLOW AT THE SIDE. 



65 



A blow at the left side ia stopped by similarly throwing the 
point downward, and to the left. — Fig. 65, 



65 




The legs are seldom points of attack ; but when they are, 
they should be protected by the same guards as the sides. 

This is, perhaps, the rudest method of using the stick; but 
the protection it gives to the fore-arm and elbow are great 
advantages. 



66 



SINGLE-STICK. 



Basket-sticks, similar to those used in the broad-sword 
exercise, but rather heavier, are used for this exercise. Both 
parties strip to the shirt. In some parts of the country, 
paddings are used to save the arms, especially the elbows; 
but this is never done in London. 

Most players prefer to stand with the right foot forward; 
but some prefer the left. — Fig. 66. 

66 




The body is held upright; the head, backward; the leg, 
straight; the right arm, advanced and nearly straight; the 
hand, opposite the forehead, but rather higher; the stick, 
slanting towards the left shoulder. The left hand grasps a 
handkerchief, which is tied loosely round the left thigh; and 
the left elbow is elevated and thrown forward, so as to protect 
the head. 



THE BLOW AT THE HBAD. 67 

The principal point of attack is the head ; tint blood from 
it, or from the face or neck, above the level of the lower jaw, 
being decisive. 

In the position already described, the bead is thoroughly 
protected. It is, therefore, necessary to get the adversary ont 
of that position before attacking his head. This may be 
attempted by attacking him under the arm, at the point of 
the elbow, or on the ribs ; or you may wait till he attacks you, 
iiml then try to strike at his bead before be can get back to 

All the blowa are to be made from the wrist ; the great art 
being to strike them as quickly as possible, and return to the 
primary position, in which the head is thoroughly protected, 
before the adversary can get at it. 

The usual blow at the head is struck by suddenly twisting 
the wrist round from a state of pronation to supination ; the 
point of the stick describing a semicircle round the hand. — 
(Fig. 67.) To stop this, raise the hand a little.— (Same Fig.) 
The return is the same as the attack. 




Striking over is done when the adversary, through inatten- 
tion or fatigue, lets his hand sink below the level of his head. 
In this blow, the stick passes close over the adversary's hand; 
the wrist is not twisted round to supination ; and the blow is 
altogether more horizontal and passes somewhat diagonally 
from left to right. The arm moves more.— (Fig. 68.) To 
guard this, raise the hand. 



The usual return after this attack, is a blow at the left side 
of the face (fig. 69), which is likely to succeed on account of 
difficulty of the other party returning to guard after striking 

Striking at the ribs is done chiefly to fatigue the adversary, 
and make him bring down his hand so as expose his head. It 
is the right ribs only that we attack. — (Fig. 70.) Some players 
guard this by throwing the stick down, while others do not 
guard at all, but strike at the head.— Fig. 71 . 

The right fore-arm and elbow are also frequent points of 



THK BLOW AT THE RIBS. 



attack. A blow on the inside of the elbow just between the 
two bones which project there, deadens the ulnar nerve passing 




8INGLK-HTICK. 



down to the third and fourth fingers, and prevents the stick 
being felt with them.— Fig. 72. 



1 AT TBI WRIST. 



The wrist is sometimes attacked, and must be guarded by 
moving the hand a little to the right.— Fig. 73. 




-yj&r 



72 



FENCING. 



METHOD OF MAJOR GORDON. 
ORIGIN AND EFFECTS OF THE ART. 

To give authority to the common system, it has been as- 
serted, that it was the result of experiments from nature; 
that different peasants having been ordered to make their 
efforts in succession, concurred in making their first thrust 
in prime, directing the point high, more to the left of the 
antagonist, with their hands in pronation ; that is, with the 
knuckles and palm downwards, and the convexity of the hand, 
of course upwards. — See Prime, Fig. 74. 

From this weak position most of the cuts and guards used 
by cavalry are derived. 

The peasants agreed in delivering their second thrust under 
the arm of the adversary, the hand in pronation. — Seconde, 
Fig. 74. 

Their third impulse was over the adversary's arm, retaining 
the same position of the hands. — Tierce, Fig. 74. 

This is an excellent position for cutting vertically down- 
wards. 

Being ordered to make a fourth impulse, they rolled their 
hands into supination, wherein the nails, knuckles, and palm 
of the hand, are turned upwards. They projected the thrust 
into the cavity of the arm of the adversary. — Quarte, the 
safest and strongest position, Fig. 75. 

They directed the fifth thrust low, under the adversary's 



CUTS AND THRUSTS REDUCED TO QUARTS AND TIERCE. 75 

arm, with their hand in pronation, and opposed to the right 
of the adversary. — Quinte, Fig. 74.— Hence, the hanging 
guard, and the inside and outside half hangers, &c. 

The octave is the sixth thrust; the hand is in supination, 
and opposed to your own right. In quarte, the opposition is 
to your left. 

Such are the simple thrusts, from which all cuts and thrusts, 
however complex, are derived. 

The six simple guards are synonymous with the thrusts, 
as the guard of quarte, the guard of tierce, &c. &c. 

As thrusts are either simple or complex, so are the guards. 
All cuts are complex motions, or combinations of several 
simple motions. Notwithstanding this French arrangement of 
the thrusts, yet it appears from experiments, and the con- 
struction of the arm, that the quarte should he placed at the 
head of all the thrusts and parades, from the strength of the 
hand in opposing, and retaining the weapon in that position. 
Tierce ranks next to quarte ; as in tierce the hand is over the 
adversary, and has all the advantages of gravity in striking 
downwards. The seconde, quinte, and the prime itself, descend 
from tierce. But these three thrusts, and all guards and 
thrusts derived from them, such as the hanging-guard, the 
outside and inside half-hangers, the off side and near side 
protects should be rejected, being dangerous to the persons 
using them. In like manner, should be rejected all cuts, save * 
only two, and all complex thrusts whatever; but certain com- 
plex parades cannot be too studiously cultivated. 



ADVANTAGES OF THE SIMPLE THRUSTS, ETC., AND RE- 
DUCTION OF ALL CUTS AND THRUSTS TO TWO DENO- 
MINATIONS, VIZ. QUARTE AND TIERCE. 

A simple thrust is one direct motion, impelled with such 
celerity as to be finished in the least point of time. A complex 
thrust is a combination of two or more simple motions. All 
cuts are invariably complex. 

o 2 



76 FENCING. 

Simple thrusts are to be used in preference to the complex, 
as appears from comparison. 

Feints are either single or double, but rarely triple. The 
single feint is the least complex of all compound thrusts : it 
menaces an attack on one point, to cover the real impulse 
intended upon another. The French mode (which is erro- 
neous) is as follows : — (Fig. 76\) The point describes the 

76 

B 




A C 

Single Feint. 

arc, or line A 8, in the direction of the arrows : 2nd, it 
retrogrades in the same line, say B C, that is describing the 
base, or rather the whole triangle, twice; 3rd, the point is 
projected from the point A ; that is, the single feint is com- 
posed of three motions, equal to the three sides of a triangle ; 
but by Euclid (20th Prop. lib. 1), any two sides of a triangle 
are greater than the third, and the three are much greater ; 
and the times being as the space described, the velocities being 
equal, the time of the single feint is to that of the simple 
thrust 3 : : 1 ; therefore, the celerity and advantage of the 
simple thrust are in that proportion, Q E D. Any further 
illustration of the advantage of the simple thrust over cuts 
and thrusts still more complex than the feint, seems to be 
superfluous. The right mode of executing the feint is this : 
after disengaging from A to B, from the point B push straight 
home, without returning to A, raising and opposing your hand, 
so as to force his blade out of the line ; recover quickly, using 
the round parade of quarte ; yet even so, the advantage of the 
simple thrust would be two to one. 

The four simple thrusts, prime, seconde, tierce, and quinte 
(Fig. 74), agree in being delivered by the hand in pronation : 
they are said to differ, because they are directed to different 



GUARDS OF QUARTS, TIERCE, ETC. 77 

points of the body. The tierce, or cut over and outside of the 
arm, from its superior direction, conspires with gravity in 
forcing an opening by the dexterous application of the fort ; 
but in the prime, seconde, and quinte, there are no such 
advantages. 

The position of the hand is the weakest species of pro- 
nation : the fingers opening downwards, are ready to be dis- 
armed by the slightest vertical impulse. The weakness is still 
greater in the guards derived from these positions : therefore, 
these might be safely reduced to one class, called tierce. 

The three thrusts, quart?, quarte over the arm, and the 
octave (fig. 75), are excellent, and agree in the circumstance 
of being impelled by the hand in the strong position of supi- 
nation. The arm, wrist and fingers, being turned upwards, 
the fingers open in that direction, and the impulse which is 
wade upwards against the force of gravity, will generally fail 
in effecting the disarm: these three differing only in their 
direction to different points of the body, and in direction of 
the opposition of the hand, might, therefore, be reduced to 
one class, denominated quarte. 

It is clear, that an indefinite number of cuts and thrusts 
may be directed to the various parts of the body ; but if all 
such were to have distinct names, no dictionary could contain 
them. 



THE GUARDS OF QUARTE, TIERCE, ETC. 

The science of defence is concentrated in the three following 
particulars:— 

1st, — Id the graceful command of the body and limbs, and 
in the acquisition of the particular means which are subser 
vient to this end. 

2dly, — In the possession of the proper line of direction, &c, 
and, 

3rdly, — In the proper opposition of the hand, and in the 
application of the fort to the feeble. 



78 FENCING. 

For the purpose of obtaining the first of those essential 
points, the command of body, yon are to be exercised in 
the three following positions. The first is well known, being 
the position of a soldier standing on parade, erect, with his 
heels close, upon a small base. This is a weak attitude, and 
unfit for defence, &c. ; therefore, he is to spring from this into 
the second position, which is martial, and well adapted to 
defence and attack. — (Fig. 770 The knees are bent, and the 
more the better, as the force of the elastic spring will be in 
proportion to the contraction of the muscles; the body is 
balanced on both legs, so that it may rest on both or upon 
one, and more particularly upon the hinder leg. By this 
flexibility and command of body, you may be within and out 
of measure (as it were) at the same moment. Instead of 
standing square to the front, as in the first position, and pre- 
senting the greater diameter of your person, you present your 
side only, which will be covered by your weapon, and your 
arm directed in a line before you. The sword is to be grasped 
by all the fingers, and the thumb extended along the gripe. 
As the knees are bent, so must the hand be contracted at the 
elbow. — Fig. 78. 

This position is termed on guard. The sword must not 
be held parallel to the horizon, as that position would subject 
your feeble to his fort ; and much less should your point be 
depressed below the horizon, for the same reason ; therefore, 
it should be raised thirty degrees above the horizon, and 
directed nearly in the line of his eye. In the second position, 
you guard or parry quarte and tierce, and all cuts and thrusts, 
and advance and retire a few paces, facing your adversary. 

Parry quarte by your fort in quarte, and tierce by your 
fort in tierce. You cannot be too much practised in advancing, 
retiring and parrying, simple thrusts and cuts in this attitude. 
Having fully obtained the command of your person by this 
practice, and not before, you are to spring from it into your 
third position, which is that of the allonge. 

In the second position you sink on your knees, and have all 



GUARDS OF QUARTE, TIERCE, ETC. 



n 




V 



Quarte. 

your powers restrained and ready to be exerted; the exertion 
of these powers will place you in the third position, with your 
feet about thirty-sis inches asunder, at right angles. This 
attitude is termed the allonge.— Fig. 79. 




YTi 



Allonge in Qasrtc. 



GUARDS OF QUABTE, TIERCE, ETC. 



81 



The allonge is to be made with all possible rapidity : this 
will be better accomplished by impressing the ideas of it upon 
the mind one after another. Thus, first form your extension 
(fig. 80) ; elevate your right hand in quarte, as high as the 



80 




Profile of the Extension. 

direction of your left eye-brow ; lower your point in a line with 
the cavity under the arm of the adversary; extend your left 
hand and left knee ; then project the thrust, rolling your hand 
still more in quarte, or supination; throw forward your right 
foot at the same instant, fifteen or sixteen inches, so that 
your feet may be at least thirty-six inches asunder. — (Fig. 81.) 



81 




Profile of Allonge in Quarte. 



82 FENCING. 

The foot should resound in striking the ground. Repeat this 
practice until you can execute it in one rapid motion. Exa- 
mine your attitude in this third position, and practise unremit- 
tingly in the air, until you acquire a graceful precision in the 
execution. Fig. 82, gives an idea of guarding the thrust of 
quarte. 

Your own feelings and judgment will best determine the 
length of your allonge : it should be such as would enable you 
to recover to your second position, with the utmost ease and 
celerity in real action. 

When you are engaged on guard in the second position, the 
blades are to touch in a point, about ten inches distant from 
their extremities. The quarte is to be thus delivered: — 

Form the extension by a rotatory motion of the arm and 
wrist raised and extended, &c. (fig. 80); project the sword in 
and along the identical point of contact, as in a nick ; oppose 
your fort thus upwards against his feeble, as it were in the 
nick. Direct your thrust, or cut, in the line, in such a manner 
as to infix your point into the cavity under his arm. — Fig. 83. 

All this is to be executed in one motion, and with such 
celerity as to hit your adversary an instant before your foot 
strikes the ground. Recover quickly, using your round parade 
of quarte on this and all occasions. 

There are only two good cuts, and these have not been 
noticed by the French, nor by their disciples : the first is the 
cut made vertically downwards in quarte ; the second is hurled 
vertically downwards in tierce. 

Make the vertical cut in quarte thus: — Raise your point 
vertically, and oppose your identical fort (that is, that point of 
your sword which is in contact with the shell) to the very 
extremity of his sword ; contract your arm ; and having thus 
secured his foible, strike in this vertical cut on the quarte, or 
inside of your adversary; terminate this cut in a thrust, and 
recover, using your round parade of quarte with all celerity. — 
Fig. 83. 

In cutting, the hand is to be in the most natural position, 



GUARDS OF QUARTE, TIERCE, ETC. 



83 



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84 



FENCING. 



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GUARDS OF BtlARTB, TIBBCE, E'.'C. 85 

between supination and pronation ; but it is to be turned into 
complete supination when you end your out in a thrust. The 
best mode of parrying this cut is by the pointe volan te ; that is, 
by contracting the arm, and opposing the fort of the weapon, 
which must be raised perpendicularly to extricate the foible. 
By this parade, he opposes his fort to your feeble. — Figs. 84 



Pointe Volant* in Tierce. 

The terms fort and foible are relative, and used to mark the 
different forces of the different parts of the bond-weapon. 
That part of the weapon held by the hand is the fort; the 
powers of the other parts of the instrument vary in the follow- 
ing proportion ; they are in the reciprocal proportion of their 
distance from the fort ; that is, the power of any point decreases 
as its distance from the fort increases, and vice versd. The 

• The pointe volsnte is here introduced, chiefly in relation to its ippli- 



Pointe Volante in Quarte, 

extreme point of the weapon ia more weak than any point 
between the extremity and the fort, &c. ; the fort itself of the 
instrument is the foible, in regard to the power of the elbow. 
Sec. In the application of the fort, and the command of the 
body, &c, is concentrated the art of defence. 

The guard, cut and thrust of tierce, are formed by turning 
the fore-arm, wrist and hand, into pronation. As in the 
guard of quarto hand is to be less in supination than when 
it finishes the thrust, so in the guard of tierce it i* to be less 
in pronation than when it delivers the thrust. 

Besides this motion of pronation, the hand is to describe an 
arc of about eight inches, from the guard of quarte to that of 
tierce, from the left to the right. 

The delivery of the thrust and cut in tierce, is similar in 
principle to that of quarte, in justly applying your fort. The 
formation of the extension and the allonge are the tame in all 
thrusts; hut your opposition in tierce, and in quarte over the 
arm, is to yonr right. — Fig. 86. 

Feel your adversary's blade constantly, but do not press it, 



GUARDS OF QUARTK, TIERCE. ETC. 



87 



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o 



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73 



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as you will be exposed to his time thrust by your relinquishing 
the point of contact ; therefore, in disengaging from quarte to 
tierce, move your point closely, within a hair's breadth of bis 
blade ; so quickly, that yonr change shall be imperceptible, 
your hand being in supination, as it was before, for if you 
roll your hand into pronation as you change your point, your 
motion will be wide. Roll your hand into pronation as you 
project the thrust along his blade, in the point indented in it, 
as it were in a nick, to direct your course. Oppose your hand 
high, and over his blade, to your right. Direct your point 
into the cavity under his arm. His effort to parry this thrust 
(if you have seized his foible), by his parade in tierce, will 
materially serve you, as it will be a fulcrum assisting your 
thrust, unless your sword hips or bends. Fig. 87, gives an 
idea of planting the tierce. 



Tierce planted home. 

Engaged in quarte, if you find a direct thrust or cut im- 
practicable for you to execute, but not otherwise, raise your 
point vertically ; apply your fort to his point in tierce, and cut 
down vertically and forcibly, ending your cut in a thrust. 
The best mode of guarding this thrust, &c. is by the pointe 



FENCING. 89 

volant e in tierce : thug extricate your foible by raising your 
point vertically, with your hand in tierce. By this mode, bis 
foible will come to your fort. 

The seconde differs from tierce only in its direction, which 
is under the arm; it is generally returned after you have 
parried the quarte over, or the tierce. 

The thrust of prime is, or may be, returned after the parade 

Although no guard can be weaker than that of prime, 
excepting the modem guards derived from it, such as the 
protects. Sec. (fig. 88), yet it is useful in one case, and in that 



only ; namely, in guarding off a forcible quarte over the arm ; 
for if by his fort he has seized your foible, in pushing his 
quarte over, you cannot parry this thrust by your parade of 
tierce; on the contrary, your resistance in tierce will serve 
him as a fulcrum : for his sword, which was a lever of the 
third, that is, of the worst kind, before he had pushed it into 



90 



FENCING. 



its present situation inside your arm, now becomes a lever of 
the first, that is, of the best kind; therefore, instead of 
resisting in vain, submit your point, and contract your hand 
in prime ; thus his foible will come to your fort. 

The better mode of parrying is by the pointe volante in 
tierce. 

The quinte (fig. 89) seems to be unworthy of notice. The 
quarte over the arm is executed by disengaging your pointe 
closely. Spring your fort to his pointe, and hurl the thrust 
into the cavity under his arm, turning your hand into com- 
plete supination. Your opposition is to your right as in 
tierce. 

The octave is a good return, directed under his arm, after 
you have parried quarte over, or tierce. After you parry 
quarte over, or tierce, return tierce ; if you see no opening for 
tierce, return the octave, that is, quarte under his arm instead 
of the seconde; you may, however, slide in tierce, and 
instantly dart in seconde, which is tierce directed under his 
arm; recover quickly, upon all occasions using your round 
parade of quarte. 

COMPOUND THRUSTS, CUTS, PARADE, &C. 

An idea of the simple thrusts, and the project of compres- 
sing them, having been previously submitted ; in this section 
will be offered a sketch of the complex thrusts, &c. 

The weakness of the prime, seconde, and quinte, has been 
already remarked : if these are radically bad in their simple 
state, all modifications and combinations of them, in feints, 
glissades, circles, and round parades, are still worse, and 
therefore should be rejected. 

The seconde should not be parried by the half-circle, but by 
a little impulse of your fort in quarte, which will probably 
disarm him. If you throw in the octave at the instant he 
pushes seconde, you will both parry and hit him at the same 
moment, as his foible will come against your fort ; but your 
round parade of quarte will break all such returns. Parry his 



FENCING. 



91 



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92 FENCING. 

quarte over with your round parade of quarte, and return 
quarte, or quarte over, or a vertical cut, which, if he parries, 
dart in quarte under his arm as you are in the act of reco- 
vering. 

The glissade is a sliding movement along his blade, intended 
to draw him from the line, and to expose him to a thrust or 
cut. The glissade is dangerous, as he may hit you on the first 
movement by his simple thrust, having two to one in his 
favour. The glissades in simple quarte and tierce are dan- 
gerous; but the glissades of seconde, prime and quinte, are 
still more useless. 

The flanconnade is a thrust directed to the lateral part of 
the belly : make use of it as a return from your round parade 
of quarte, by pressing down his point with your fort ; the 
resistance of his point will assist the direction of your flan- 
connade. If he submit his point to your force, and comes to 
the second position in quarte, your foible will come to his 
fort ; that is, he will parry, and perhaps hit you, in quarte. 
The mode of executing these little thrusts, &c. will be better 
illustrated by the example and living voice of a master, than 
by this detail. 

Notwithstanding the danger generally resulting from the 
use of all cuts, and compound thrusts, and more particularly 
from any combinations of the guards of prime, seconde, &c, 
yet the complex guards, termed the round parades of quarte, 
of tierce, and of the half circle, cannot be sufficiently practised. 
These guards counteract and confound the projects of the 
adversary. The round parade of quarte circled twice round 
with celerity, and combined with the half circle annexed ; or 
the rapid rotation, twice, or thrice, of the half circle, with the 
round parade immediately annexed, or any combination of 
the round parade of quarte with the round parade of tierce, 
terminated by simple quarte and tierce, form a shield sufficient 
to guard off all cuts and thrusts whatever. 

Fig. 90. — The round parade in quarte is thus formed. With 
the point of your sword describe the circle in the direction of 



FENCING. 
90 



93 







Round Parade in Quarte. 



the arrow (which circle is the base of the conical surface de- 
scribed by your weapon) ; feel his blade, by adhering to the 
point of contact as you circle ; protrude his blade with dex- 
terity, so as to bring it round to your former position of 
quarte ; finish your parade with a degree of energy. If he 
circles twice, or oftener, repeat this parade, immediately an- 
nexing the half circle, whereby you will cross his sword, and 
perhaps disarm him ; or you may annex to this parade your 
round parade of tierce, which will either disarm or drive him 
from the line. Dexterity, in the combination of these parades, 
will enable you, although blindfolded, to parry all superior 
cuts and thrusts. 
Fig. 91. — The round parade of tierce is thus formed, With 



91 




Round Parade in Tierce. 

the point describe a circle in the direction of the arrow, from 
your right towards your left ; adhere closely, as if the swords 
were tied in the point of contact; finish this circle with a 
degree of force, in or near to the point of its commencement. 
If he circles, repeat this parade, and unite to it the round 



94 FENCING. 

parade of quarte, or simple quarte and tierce. The tierce, the 
quarte over, the quarte under the arm, and the vertical cut, 
hurled down along his blade, are all excellent returns imme- 
diately after this parade. 

The half circle (fig. 92) is formed thus. By a rapid twirl 

2nd. Position; Parade of the Demicircle. 



92 




1st. Position of Quarte. 

of your hand, with your point describe the segment or arc of 
the circle in the direction of the arrow. The point is de- 
pressed, and the hand raised as high as your left eyebrow. 
Take care that in all parades whatever, you bend, and do not 
extend, your right arm. 

The repetition of this parade forms circles; it collects all 
thrusts and low cuts ; and when combined with the octave, 
it is a complete shield for defence, if he feigns, parry with the 
half circle, unless you choose to time him, or to break all his 
projects with your round parade of quarte. If he deceive your 
half circle, only extend your hand in octave, and he must fall 
on your point, &c. 

DISARMING. 

The dexterous combination of the round parades will enable 
you frequently to disarm your adversary. The weakness of 
the hand in pronation, particularly in the thrusts, cuts and 
guards of prime, seconde and quinte, is evident. This weak- 
ness is still more manifest, in the guards termed the hanging 



guard, the protects, and the inside and outside half-hangers, 
&c. &c— (Fig. 93 and 94.) No add from the sword-knot can 



prevent the fingers from opening and yielding to an; impulse 
in the vertical direction, when the sword is held in these 
positions. But even a tolerable swordsman may be disarmed 
in the following circumstances : 

1. If he changes from tierce to push quarte, cross his foible 
from your left towards your right, in the direction of the 
opening of his fingers, direct your point in the line towards 
bis light eye, allonge, and you will both hit and disarm him. 

2. If he cuts over your point, or pushes quarte-over, use 
your round parade of quarte ; instantly rolling your hand into 
pronation, direct your point in the hue as before. 

3. Parry any assault made over your arm with the pointe 
volante in tierce, hurl down the vertical cut, end it in a thrust, 
opposing your hand well in quarte, and he will be cut, hit 
and disarmed. 

4. If he pushes prime, leconde, or quint c, &c, his band is 



96 FENCING. 

ready prepared to be disarmed by the slightest impulse of your 
weapon in quarte, touching his foible. Be careful to disarm 
in the line, that you may not be exposed, in the event of your 
not succeeding in your plan. 

5. If he pushes or cuts under your arm, rotate your hand, 
describing the half-circle three or four times in continuation ; 
adhere closely to his blade, and he may be thus disarmed. 
Your point, in this case, describes circles, although this guard 
is termed the half-circle. 

6. The following mode of disarming is safe and certain, 
however unfair it might be deemed in the schools : parry his 
quarte over with your round parade of quarte ; and before his 
foot strikes the ground depress his foible, and adhere to it 
with your foot; seize the fort of his sword with your left 
hand, and he will be instantly disarmed, &c. &c. Attempt 
none of these modes of disarming before you feel yourself 
completely dexterous in the preceding parts. 

OP THB TIME-THRUST. 

Timing is the summit and very last stage of the art of 
defence, and not to be attempted, except by the ablest swords* 
man. It consists in the anticipation of your adversary, by 
nicking that point of time which is the most favourable and 
safe for you to make a thrust. The thrust delivered at this 
critical moment is called the time-thrust, and is of four kinds. 

1. The first is, the time-thrust, which you deliver on his 
first movement to assault you, when you are both engaged 
within the proper measure. As, suppose he raises his point, 
or feigns ; in either case, dart in a simple thrust, opposing your 
fort, either in quarte or tierce, as the case may require, and 
you will probably anticipate him, it being above two to one 
in your favour if you nick the time, 

2. The time of the arrest is a decisive thrust, when properly 
executed. Be careful to take your station on guard, at least, 
twenty-four inches beyond the extent of his allonge ; at this 



FENCING. 97 

distance he cannot reach you; he must, therefore, advance one 
step. He means, suppose, to engage your blade in tierce, do 
not meet or touch his blade with yours, but nick the time of 
his first movement, and anticipate him by your well-delivered 
quarte. Recover quickly, and spring back to your former 
ground, or rather twenty-four inches farther back. Use your 
round parade of either quarte or tierce, as you are recovering; 
repeat the same if you can seize an opportunity, as it will be 
safer for you to act in this manner, than to risk a contest with 
him in close action. You give the time-thrust gratis, unless 
he is pre-eminent in the art. 

3. Should he, standing out of measure as before, advance to 
join your blade in quarte, do not suffer your blade to be 
touched, seize the time of his advance, and send home a quarte 
over the arm. Spring back to your ground as before; you 
may throw in a quarte under his arm as you recover. 

4. Counter-timing. If your antagonist should decline to 
advance, in the expectation of timing you as you advance, 
you may counter-time him in this manner : — Advance in tierce, 
to excite him to deliver his time-thrust in quarte, as you are 
advancing, whirl your hand forcibly into the half-circle, with 
your point directed in the line, and you will parry and counter- 
time him at the instant he delivers his thrust. 

Again, suppose he will not advance, but rather wait, for the 
purpose of timing you on your first movement. He stands 
guarded in tierce to allure you to engage his blade in quarte, 
that he may time you with his quarte-over, as you advance 
from the pointe volante in tierce, and his foible will be pre- 
cisely applied to your fort; from this position hurl down a 
vertical cut; end your cut in a thrust along his blade, over 
his arm. If you succeed in this stroke, as you must if you 
do your duty, you may continue to pour in thrust after thrust 
incessantly until he submits. 

If, however, your antagonist has recovered quickly, and 
parried your assault by the pointe volante, which seems to be 
the only parade adequate to the purpose, the assault may be 



98 FENCING. 

continued. In this case, the best general rule is to use your 
round parades, and the pointe volante. Hesitate not to excite 
him to cut at your lower extremities. For example; if he cuts 
low at your thigh, withdraw it a little; seize this critical mo- 
ment, and cut down vertically through his face; terminate 
this cut in a thrust, in conformity to the Roman practice, 
as in fig. 95. 



FENCING. 



99 



S 




100 



BROAD SWORD, 

AS IN THE COMMON MILITARY PRACTICE. 



EXPLANATION AND USE OF THE TARGET, FIG. 96. 

The target should be placed so as to have the centre rather 
below the height of a man's shoulder : from below this centre 
a line is drawn on the ground directly to the front ; and, at the 
distance of about ten feet, the learner is placed in the position 
of attention, with his left heel on the line, so that when he 
turns to the first position of the exercise, his right foot may 
cover it. The circular figure shews the seven cuts and guards. 
The cuts are directed through the centre, distinguished by 
lines, and named according to that figure from which each cut 
commences. The guards are performed by holding the sword 
opposite, and in the inclination of the dotted lines, which 
have sword-hilts attached to them, and supposing the circular 
figure to be about the breadth and height of a man's body, the 
cuts and guards will be regulated according to the lines de- 
scribed upon the circle ; nor is the learner practised in any 
other mode until he has gained the proper direction of the 
cuts, as well as the inclination of the blade, and portion of the 
wrist, in forming the guards. 

The points, or thrust, should be directed, as marked in the 
target, with the wrist towards No. 1, and the edge of the 
sword raised to the right in the first point ; or towards No. 2, 
with the edge raised to the left in the second point ; and in 
the third point, with the wrist rising to the centre, the edge 
upwards to the right, and the point directed as marked on the 
bottom of the circle. 



Fig. 96 (p. 100.) 




5«* 



BROAD SWORD. 101 

OF THE PREPARATORY P08IT10N AND MOVEMENTS 
PREVIOUS TO USING THE SWORD.* 

Attention. — The body is to be erect, the heels close together, 
and the hands hanging down on each side. 

First Extension Motions. — This serves as a caution, and the 
motions tend to expand the chest, raise the head, throw back 
the shoulders, and strengthen the muscles of the back. 

One. — Bring the hands and arms to the front, the fingers 
lightly touching at the points, and the nails downwards ; then 
raise them in a circular direction well above the head, the ends 
of the fingers still touching, the thumbs pointing to the rear, 
elbows pressed back, and. shoulders kept down. 

Two. — Separate and extend the arms and fingers, forcing 
them obliquely back, till they come extended on a line with 
the shoulders ; and as they fall gradually from thence to the 
original position of Attention, endeavour, as much as possible, 
to elevate the neck and chest. 

These two motions are frequently practised, with the head 
turned as much as possible to the right or left, and the body 
kept square to the front; they are repeated by fiuglemen 
placed to the respective flanks. This tends very materially to 
supple the neck, &c. 

Three. — Turn the palms of the hands to the front, and press 
back the thumbs with the arms extended, and raise them to 
the rear, till they meet above the head ; the fingers pointing 
upwards, with the ends of the thumbs touching. 

Four. — Keep the arms and knees straight,' and bend over 
till the hands touch the feet, the head being brought down in 
the same direction. 

Five. — With the arms flexible and easy from the shoulders, 
raise the body gradually, so as to resume the position of at- 
tention. 

* Drawings of these positions and motions may be seen in Walker's Manly 
Exercises, Fourth Edition, published by Hunt, No. 5, St, Paul' 9 Church 
Yard. The Fifth Edition published by Orr, is not recognised by the author. 



102 BROAD SWORD. 

The whole of these motions are done very gradually, so as 
to feel the exertion of the muscles throughout. 

First Position in Three Motions. — Caution. 

One. — Move the hands smartly to the rear, the left grasping 
the right arm just above the elbow, and the right supporting 
the left arm under the elbow. 

Two. — Make a half face to the left, turning on the heels, so 
that the back of the left touches the inside of the right heel ; 
the head retaining its position to the front. 

Three. — Bring the right heel before the left, the feet at 
right angles, and the right foot pointing to the front; the 
shoulders square to the left, and the weight of the body resting 
on the left leg. 

Second Position in Two Motions. — Caution. 

One. — Bend the knees gradually, keeping them as much 
apart as possible, without raising the heels or changing the 
erect position of the body. 

Two. — Step out smartly with the right foot about eighteen 
inches in line with the left heel ; the weight of the body re- 
maining on the left leg. 

Balance Motions. — Caution. 

One. — Move the right foot about eight inches to the rear of 
the left heel, the toe lightly touching the ground, with the 
heel perpendicular to it, forcing the knees well apart. 

Two. — Raise the body gradually by the extension of the 
left leg. 

Three. — Bend the left knee, resuming the position made 
previous to the second motion. 

Four. — Advance the right leg, and with a smart beat of the 
foot resume the Second Position, from which the balance 
motions commenced. 

First Position. — Extending both knees, draw the right heel 
up to the left. 



BROAD SWORD. 103 

Third Position in Two Motions. — Caution. 

One. — Incline the right side to the front, with the hip kept 
in, so that the shoulders and knee are perpendicular to the 
point of the foot. 

Two. — Step out smartly to the front, about thirty-six inches, 
with the knee perpendicular to the instep ; the left knee and 
foot kept straight and firm, the heels in a line, the body 
upright, and the shoulders square to the left. 

Second Extension Motions. — Caution. 

One. — Bring the arms to the front of the body with the 
hands closed, and the knuckles uppermost, touching each 
other below the lower button of the jacket ; raise them gradu- 
ally (keeping the elbow on the same line with them) to the pit 
of the stomach, the knuckles of the fingers by degrees turning 
upwards ; then by forcing back the shoulders, the hands will 
be drawn apart, and the motion is completed, by sinking the 
elbows, and smartly extending the arms and fingers in a 
diagonal line, with the right wrist as high as the head, the 
shoulders kept down, and the thumbs inclined to the right. 

For beginners, this motion may be divided, by giving the 
word Prepare, for the first part; and remaining perfectly 
steady, when the hands are brought to the breast ready to 
separate ; then give the word One, for the motion to be com- 
pleted. 

Two. — Close the right hand, and draw it into the shoulder, 
at the same time inclining the body forward, until the right 
elbow rests upon the point of the knee ; the left arm rising 
gradually, and remaining extended, as the body advances, so 
as to bring the wrist as high as the head, which must be well 
kept up. 

Three.— Raise the upper part of the body, drawing in the 
elbow, and, when nearly upright, extend the right arm smartly, 
and open the hand ; thereby resuming the position formed by 
the first motion. 



104 BROAD SWORD. 

Four. — Raise the body by extending the right leg. 

Five. — Bend the right knee and advance the body, so as to 
resume the position in the first motion. 

First Position. — Spring up with the arms to the rear, and 
the right heel close to the left, which forms the First Position, 
as before described. 

Front. — Come smartly to the position of Attention, bringing 
the hands and feet, in one motion, to their proper places. 



In the foregoing instructions, the Positions and Movements 
preparatory to using the Sword have been explained, giving a 
separate word of command for each motion respectively. The 
same positions may now be gone through, naming only in the 
word of command the Position or Movement required, and 
distinguishing it by the numbers, One, Two, &c. &c. It is 
intended by this to practice the learner in changing from the 
different positions readily, and without losing his balance, 
which will almost invariably rest upon the left leg. 

Positions by Numbers. — Caution. 

One. — Raising the arms to the rear, and the right heel to 
the front, come at once to the First Position. 

Two. — Come to the Second Position. 

Three.— To the Third Position. 

Two. — To the Second Position. 

One. — To the First Position. 

Three.— To the Third Position. 

First Balance Motion. — Spring up to the position, as shown 
in the First Balance Motion. 

Three. — Step out to the Third Position. 

First Balance Motion. — Spring up as before. 

Two. — Step out to the Second Position. 

Single Attack. — Raise the right foot, and beat it smartly on 
the ground. 



BROAD SWORD. 105 

Double Attack*. — Raise the right foot, and beat it, as before, 
twice on the ground ; first with the heel, and then with the 
flat of the foot. 

Advance.— Move forward the right foot about six inches, 
and place it smartly on the ground; then bring the left foot 
lightly about the same distance. 

Single Attack. — As before. 

Retire. — Move the left foot lightly to the rear about six 
inches, the whole weight and balance of the body still con- 
tinuing to rest upon it ; then move the right foot back the 
same distance, and place it smartly on the ground. 

Double Attack. — As before. 

Front. — Draw back the right foot, and resume the position 
of Attention. 

The object of the preceding portion of the Drill, as Positions 
and Movements preparatory to using the Sword, is to give a 
free and active use of the limbs; a thorough command of 
which, with the knowledge of the best mode of position, in 
applying the force of the muscular powers, will not only 
facilitate and give great advantage in the use of the sword, but 
tend to ensure a proper efficacy to the cuts and guards: 
enabling the beginner to gain more easily that pliability, as 
well as strength in his position, which may be required either 
for assault — defence — or in quickly returning the attack upon 
his adversary. The instructor proves the firmness of the 
positions by bearing equally and firmly on the shoulders of the 
learner, and during the changes in forming the Second Posi- 
tion and Balance Motions ; when in the First of the Second 
Extension Motions, by taking hold of his right wrist with both 
hands, and bearing upon it in the direction of the left leg, 
upon the line of which the right arm should be, if properly 
placed ; and making him also, in each position, move the right 
toe up and down, without its motion affecting the body, Jn 
all positions where both knees are bent, the more so they are 
tho better; as a greater spring and elasticity is gained in 

I 



106 BROAD SWORD. 

forming quickly any other position. The body must be gene- 
rally (and indeed almost always) balanced, and rest upon the 
left leg ; by which means greater flexibility is allowed to the 
right leg in moving forward to gain distance upon an adver- 
sary, or vice versd, in retiring from his reach. No precise 
length can be assigned in moving the right leg to the front in 
the Third Position, as it depends upon the length and stride 
of the person ; but it should not be beyond what may allow of 
his return to the First or Second Position with quickness, 
and perfect facility to himself. When this section of the 
exercise is practised as a Drill for the limbs only, it should be 
performed with the left shoulder and foot to the front, as well 
as with the right. 

OF THE CUTS, POINTS, GUARDS, AND PARRIES. 

The learner being perfectly instructed in the preparatory 
movement, now takes the sword; making him acquainted with 
the strong and weak parts of it; the forte (strong) being the 
half of the blade near the guard; the foible (weak), the half 
towards the point. A knowledge of these distinctions is very 
material, either in giving or guarding a cut; as much depends 
upon their proper application. From the guard upwards, in 
opposing the blade of an adversary, the strength decreases in 
proportion as it is received towards the point; and vice versd, 
it increases from the point downwards. The forte ought always 
to gain the foible of the opponent's weapon, and the cuts 
should be giyen within eight inches of the point, that the 
sword may clear itself. In delivering a cut, it is advantageous 
if the forte meet the adversary's foible, as it will of course 
force his guard. The sword should be held flexible, and easy 
iii the hand, but yet sufficiently firm to resist the cut of an 
adversary, and to give a cut or thrust with proper force and 
precision. The middle knuckles are to be in the direction of 
the edge in all cuts and guards. If the sword is light, the 
thumb may be placed along the back of the handle ; if heavy, 



CUTS, POINTS, GUARDS, AND PARRIE8. 107 

the gripe of the handle should be held by the thumb and 
fingers around it. According to the directions stated in the 
explanation of the Target, the learner is now placed before 
it; or he may be previously instructed in the drawing, return- 
ing, carrying, sloping swords, saluting, &c. 

Draw Swords. — Take hold of the scabbard of the sword 
with the left hand, just below the hilt, which should be raised 
as high as the hip ; then bend and raise the right arm to the 
front, as high as the shoulder, and move it across the body 
until the hand seizes the hilt, turning it at the same time to 
the rear. By a second motion, draw the sword from the scab- 
bard, with an extended arm, the edge being to the rear; 
and lower the hand until the hilt is in a line with the chin, 
the blade perpendicular, and edge to the left, which forms the 
position of Recover Swords. — By a third motion, lower the wrist 
below, and in line with the right hip, the elbow being drawn 
back, and the arm extended as much as it can be with ease ; 
the hand slightly grasping the sword, but ready, by the con- 
traction of the fingers, to resume a firm hold. The upper part 
of the sword will then be in the hollow of the right shoulder, 
with the edge to the front, which brings it to the position of 
Carry Swords. The left hand,'; in dropping the scabbard as 
soon as the sword is drawn, remains as in the position of 
Attention. 

Port Swords. — Bring the sword diagonally across the body 
with the edge downwards; and, by bending the left elbow, 
raise the hand as high as the shoulder, taking hold of the blade 
between the thumb and fore finger, the knuckles being to the 
front, and the thumb extended towards the point of the 
sword. 

Salute. — Lower the left arm, and raise the right to the 
position of Recover Swords, with the thumb extended to the 
side of the handle; then, without pause, gradually sink the 
wrist to the right, clear of the body, and rather in advance of 
the thigh, the arm extended, the elbow drawn in, and the 

i 2 



108 BROAD-SWORD. 

sword lowered in the direction of the right foot, until the point 
is a few inches from the ground, with the edge to the left. 
The left arm is, at the same time, to he raised to the left 
as high as the shoulder, and brought gradually round with a 
circular motion, until the hand touches the peak of the cap, 
the knuckles being upwards, and the elbow raised. 

The salute in line is performed at the second and third 
motion of Present Arms; but on passing a superior officer 
in review order, the salute commences when ten paces distant 
from him, allowing four paces for both motions, which are 
now blended into one, with a circular and graceful movement 
of the arm in coming up to the recover; for the effect of the 
salute depends chiefly upon the manner and address with 
which it is given; the head and eyes being also turned towards 
the person for whom the compliment is intended; having 
passed him about six paces, the sword is again brought to its 
original position. The salute invariably commences as the 
left foot comes to the ground, and the same rule is followed in 
returning it to the Recover. 

Port Swords. — Resume the position of Recover Swords; 
and by a second motion come to the Port. 

Carry Swords. — As directed under the third motion of Draw 
Swords. 

Slope Swords. — The hand is carried to the front in line 
with the elbow, which now becomes close to the hip, with the 
sword resting upon the shoulder, and the edge being to the 
front. 

Stand at Ease. — Bring the hands together, the left support- 
ing the right; the back of the sword resting on the inside of 
the left arm, the right instep drawn close to the left heel, 
and the left knee slightly bent. 

The preceding directions for standing at Ease are meant to 
apply only when the officers are in front of the line, or at 
Open Order; as in the ranks, or at Close Order, the point 



CUTS, POINTS, GUARDS, AND PARRIES* 109 

should be lowered between tbe feet, at the edge to the right, 
the hands together, with the left uppermost. 

Carry Swords. — As before. 

•• Return Swords. — Bring the hilt to the hollow of the left 
shoulder, the blade being perpendicular, and the back of the 
hand to the front ; then by a sharp turn of the wrist drop the 
point into the scabbard, turning the edge to the rear, until the 
hand and elbow are in a line with each other across the body; 
by a second motion replace the sword in the scabbard, keeping 
the hand upon the hilt, until withdrawn by a motion from the 
flugelman. 

Great care should be taken to preserve the edge of the 
blade, by allowing the back alone to bear upon the scabbard. 

During a march, or in close order for manoeuvres, the 
sword is carried with an extended arm, letting the outward 
part of the guard rest upon the inside of the fingers, with the 
thumb above it; the blade being perpendicular, and the back, 
near the point, in the hollow of the shoulder. 

Prepare to perform Sword Exercise. — Being at the posi- 
tion of Attention with sloped swords, turn the body and feet 
to the First Position, with the left hand resting upon the hip, 
and thumb to the rear. 

Bight, Prove Distance. — Extend the arm to the right, and 
lower the sword in a horizontal direction from the shoulder, 
with the edge to the rear, and the left shoulder brought square 
to the front. 

Slope Swords. — As before. 

Front, Prove Distance. — Step out to the Third Position, 
and extend the arm, lowering the point of the sword towards 
the centre of the target, with the edge to the right. 

Slope Swords. — As before. 

In both movements of proving distance, the fore-finger and 
thumb are stretched along the handle, the thumb being on the 



110 BROAD SWORD. 

back, with the end or pommel of the hilt in the palm of the 
hand. 

Guard. — Advance the point of the sword, extending the 
arm towards the centre of the target ; the edge downwards, 
and thumb along the back of the handle : then, without pause, 
step out smartly to the Second Position, bending and raising 
the elbow, the hand being directly over the right foot, and turn 
the edge of the sword upwards to the right with the point 
lowered, and inclining to the left, so as to form an angle, 
through which the opponent should always be seen; the left 
shoulder brought a little forward, and the hilt of the sword 
inclining towards No. 1, and the point directed rather below, 
and to the left of No. 4. 

Inside Guard. — Lower the wrist with the knuckles down 
and over the foot ; the point to the front, the edge to the left, 
and the hand as low as the elbow, which is to be nearly on a 
level with, and in front of, the upper part of the hip; at the 
same time make the single attack. The wrist is here inclined 
towards No. 4 ; the point towards No. 1. 

Outside Guard. — Turn the wrist with the nails downwards, 
and bring the edge to the right, repeating the single attack ; 
the hand inclining to No. 3 ; the point towards No. 2. 

Assault. — Draw up to the First Position, and raise the right 
arm to the front, with the wrist opposite No. 1, and the elbow 
rather bent towards the centre of the circular figure ; the back 
of the sword, near the point, resting on the shoulder, with the 
edge inclined to the right. 

One. — Extending the arm, direct the cut to the front in a 
diagonal line from right to left, as shewn from No. 1 to 
No. 4 ; and as the point clears the circle, turn the knuckles 
upwards, and continue the sweep of the sword, so as to bring 
the point to the rear of the left shoulder, upon which it rests, 
with the edge inclined to the left, and the wrist opposite 
No. 2. 



CUTS, POINTS, GUARDS, AND PARRIES. 11 1 

Two. — Direct the cut diagonally from No. 2 to No. 3, and 
turn the wrist, so that the sword continues its motion till it 
rises perpendicular to it, with the edge to the rear, and the 
arm extended to the right, on a level with the shoulder. 

Three. — Cut diagonally upwards from No. 3 to No. 2, 
and continue the motion of the wrist so as to bring it to 
the hollow of the left shoulder, with the point of the sword 
perpendicular to it, and the edge to the rear. 

Four. — Cut diagonally upwards from No. 4 to No. 1, and 
carry the sword to the right, turning the knuckles downwards, 
with the wrist as high as the shoulder, and the edge to the 
rear. 

Five. — Cut horizontally from No. 5 to No. 6, and turn the 
knuckles up, with the edge of the sword to the left, and 
point to the rear, over the left shoulder. 

Six. — Cut horizontally from No. 6 to No. 5, and bring the 
hand in the direction of No. 7 ; the sword being on the same 
line over the head, with the point lowered to the rear, and the 
edge uppermost. 

Seven. — Cut vertically downwards from No. 7, to the centre 
of the circle, and remain with the arm extended, placing the 
thumb along the back of the handle, with the left shoulder 
well pressed back. 

First Point. — Turn the wrist with the edge of the sword 
upwards to the right, drawing back the hand just above, and 
in front of the right eye; the elbow well bent, and railed; 
and the left shoulder brought a little forward. By a second 
motion extend the arm, and deliver the. point smartly to the 
front, in the direction of the centre of the target, with the 
wrist inclining to No. 1, and press back the left shoulder, 
so as to advance the right, which should be equally attended 
to in the second and third Points also. 

In this, and throughout the instructions, where a second 



112 BROAD SWORD. 

motion is required, the word of command Two is given, unless 
the practice is carrying on with a flugelman. 

Second Point. — Turn the edge upwards to the left, and 
draw in the elbow close to the body, with the wrist in a line 
above it, as high as, and in front of, the breast. By a second 
motion deliver the point as before directed, the wrist inclining 
to No. 2, and the edge raised with the knuckles downwards* 

Third Point. — Draw in the arm till the wrist touches the 
upper part of the hip; the edge raised to the right, the 
left shoulder advanced, and the hips well thrown back. By 
a second motion deliver the point in the direction, as marked 
on the Target, and raising the wrist towards the centre. 

Guards. — This serves as a caution for the seven guards 
which follow, distinguished in the word of command, First, 
Second, &c. 

First. — Turn the edge to the left, the thumb resuming its 
grasp of the handle, and draw in the elbow close to the body ; 
the wrist being kept to the front, and the sword placed oppo- 
site the diagonal line, as shewn in the Target by the hilt 
marked First Guard. 

In this, and in all the following guards, the point should be 
advanced rather to the front. 

Second. — Turn the wrist with the knuckles uppermost, and 
the edge to the right ; the sword placed opposite the diagonal 
line with the hilt marked Second Guard. 

Third. — Turn the wrist and edge to the left, nearly as high 
as the shoulder, with the point lowered to the right; the 
sword being held towards the diagonal line from the hilt 
marked Third Guard. 

Fourth. — Turn the wrist and edge to the right, with the 
point to the left; the sword held towards the diagonal line 
from the hilt marked Fourth Guard. 

Fifth. — Turn the edge to the left, with die wrist as high 



CUTS, POINTS, GUARDS, AND PARRIES. 113 

us the shoulder, to the front and left of the body ; the sword 
being placed opposite the perpendicular line from the hilt 
marked Fifth Guard. 

Sixth. — Turn the wrist and edge to the right, so as to 
bring the sword opposite the perpendicular line from the 
hilt marked Sixth Guard. 

Seventh. — Raise the hand above, and in advance of, the 
right ear; the elbow being raised, and well kept back, with 
the left shoulder slightly brought forward, and the sword 
in the direction of the line from the hilt marked Seventh 
Guard. 

Left Parry. — Lower the wrist nearly close to the right 
shoulder, with the thumb at the back of the handle, and the 
edge to the right ; the hips well pressed back, and the sword 
opposite the centre perpendicular line. By a second motion, 
turn the wrist, so that the point falls to the rear, and forms a 
circle from left to right of your body, and again returns to its 
former position. 

Right Parry. — Drop the point to the rear, and by the turn 
of the wrist continue the motion, so as to form a circle from 
right to left of your body ; the sword returning to its position 
as before. 

The cuts and guards may now be combined, and here it is 
more particularly intended to practise the learner in shewing 
the guard for each cut, so as to impress it on his recollection. 
The cuts should be given from the wrist to the full extent of 
the arm to the front, and in the Third Position ; with the cut 
directed no further than the centre of the circle, opposite 
which the point should remain. 

Left Check. — Step out to the Third Position, and deliver 
the cut One towards the centre of the Target, opposite to 
which the point is to remain steady, with the arm extended, 
and the wrist kept well up in this as in all the following cuts. 



114 BROAD SWORD. 

First Guard. — Spring up to the First Position, and form 
the First Guard. 

Bight Check. — Deliver cut Two, and remain as before. 

Second Guard. — Spring up to the Second Guard, &c. 

Wrist. — Deliver the cut Three, &c. 

Third Guard. — Spring up to Third Guard, &c. 

Leg. — Deliver cut Four, the point not carried above the 
height of the knee, &c. 

Fourth Guard. — Spring up to Fourth Guard, low down, and 
arm extended, &c. 

Left Side. — Deliver the cut Five, &c. 

Fifth Guard.— Spring up to Fifth Guard, &c. 

Bight Side. — Deliver cut Six, &c. 

Sixth Guard. — Spring up to Sixth Guard, &c. 

Head. — Deliver cut Seven, &c. 

Seventh Guard. — Spring up to Seventh Guard, &c. 

First Point. — As before directed, but the second motion 
given in the Third Position. 

Left Parry. — Spring up to First Position, and parry. 

Second Point. — As before, in Third Position. 

Right Parry. — As before, in First Position. 

Third Point. — As before, in Third Position. 

Right and Left Parry. — Form both Parries on drawing up 
to the First Position. 

Guard.— As before directed, in the Second Position. 

Slope Swords. — As usual, drawing up to the First Position. 

When performing by flugelman, the practice of the Assault 
is also made as follows: — The elbow is slightly bent, and the 
wrist turned sufficiently to deliver the cut One; the hand 
being brought to the front, and about the height of the face, 



PRACTICE DRILL WITH STICKS. 115 

so as to be in the direction of the centre of the Target, with 
the hips pressed well back. The seven cuts are then delivered 
without any material pause between them ; as, by the proper 
and timely turn of the wrist, each cut will lead into the other, 
and, consequently, blend their force together: the cuts should 
be given strong with the edge, leading forwards, the wrist retain- 
ing its direction to the front, as much as possible, without 
moving to the right or left; and in returning to prepare for 
another cut, the edge should be drawn back nearly in the 
same line; the arm being a little bent, so as to allow a free 
play of the elbow and shoulder, in giving effective force to the 
cut, and then extended to the utmost in the delivery of it. 
Whenever the learner fails to carry the edge well, in making 
the assault, he should be practised in combining the cuts One 
and Four, repeating them several times; also, Two and Three, 
and Five and Six; taking care that the edge leads on the 
respective lines in the Target, the wrist being darted towards 
the centre in each cut. 



OF THE ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 

The Drill being now complete in the formation of the cuts, 
and their respective guards, may put them in practice accord- 
ing to a mode of exercise. 



OF THE PRACTICE DRILL WITH STICKS. 

As no exercise with the Sword can be brought to perfection 
without some species of loose or independent practice, Sticks 
should be substituted for Swords in the present instance, as, in 
Fencing, Foils are used for the acquirement of that art. 

The Point also is to be occasionally substituted for the Cut, 
and defended by the same Guard as for the latter; and as a 
thrust should always be given, if a good opportunity and 
opening is offered, such an advantage should be taken of the 
practice with sticks, and the thrust delivered by an immediate 



116 BROAD SWORD. 

extension of the arm, when the point is in the proper line of 
direction. 

In the following directions, the word Sword is retained, 
although the practice is with sticks, which should he about 
thirty-eight inches long, and not so weak as to bend; and the 
leather practising-hilts merely large enough to cover the hand, 
without confining it : strong wire masks ought always to be 
used, as it enables those who practise to cut or thrust with 
more confidence. 

It is good practice, in the drill with sticks, for each move- 
ment of Attack, or Defence, first to be performed in two 
motions, by repeating each number, the stick slightly touching 
the part to which it is directed, and the defence only formed 
when the number is given a second time. 

A Feint is a half cut, or thrust, menacing an attack on one 
part whilst the intention is to direct it at another; and the cut, 
or thrust, may be given immediately after the feint, without 
shifting the leg, when practising by Division. 

Particular attention should be paid, that in the Attack the 
wrist preserves, as much as possible, the line of direction ; 
and, in each position of Defence, that it only deviates suffi- 
ciently to form the guard, taking care to have the wrist, elbow, 
and shoulders, supple and easy, so as to be ready to deliver a 
cut, thrust, or any movement of Attack, or Defence. 

As it is supposed that the Stick is the substitute for the 
Sword, the cut is considered fair, and effective, only when 
given with that part which would, of course, correspond with 
the edge ; nor should anything be attempted with the Stick, 
which could not be performed with the Sword. 

It would be useless to endeavour to state which are the best 
movements, as that must depend entirely on the judgment 
of the parties engaged, and their respective abilities; but 
as the loose play should not be allowed until a sufficient 
competency is attained by the parties, and they have been 
thoroughly instructed in the movements of Attack and Defence, 
they can never find themselves at a loss if the art is followed 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 117 

up by sufficient practice, and attention to the instructions they 
have received. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS AND DIRECTIONS. 

The exercise of the Sword consists of seven Cuts, or direc- 
tions of the Edge ; the same number of Guards, or defensive 
Positions ; the Point (or Thrust) given with the nails up or 
down ; and two circular motions of the Blade, termed Parries : 
— therefore, whatever may be the Attack, or Defence, it can be 
formed only by having recourse to some of the above move- 
ments, or a combination of them. 

In Engaging, by which is meant the action of joining the 
sword of an opponent, either previous to his, or your own 
attack, there should be only a slight pressure on his blade, 
so that the hand, or wrist, may be the more susceptible of 
any motions he may make ; and though the Position termed 
Guard affords protection at the moment, it is merely considered 
as preparatory to any offensive or defensive movement, varying 
the latter according to the Points liable to be attacked. 

In all attacks, whether Cuts or Thrusts, the motion ought 
to increase in speed, the impetus being given at the last; the 
same rule should be observed in stepping out to the Second 
and Third Position : but, in recovering, the reverse is to be 
followed, as the part is the quickest; and nothing can be of 
more importance, than that the eye should follow those of an 
opponent, and slightly glance at the part at which you intend 
to cut or thrust ; taking care never to look at your own sword, 
which will invariably follow the eye wherever you direct it. 

It is merely Drill Practice in making the Assault by Number, 
and although each cut has its guard according to the number, 
which answers for both, yet it does not follow that the File on 
the Defensive is always to have recourse to it, as he may 
frequently be enabled to secure himself more effectively, and 
quicker by forming another Guard. If, for example, he makes 
the cut Six at the body, and his opponent, after defending by 
the Sixth Guard, returns the cut One at the breast, then thi 



118 BROAD SWORD. 

Fifth Guard becomes the quickest movement of defence ; bnt 
if the opponent has defended by the Second Guard previous 
to his return of the cut One, then the First Guard is the 
soonest formed; consequently, the First and Fifth Guards 
each defend the cuts One or Five. The Second and Sixth 
Guards each defend the cuts Two or Six, according as they 
may be given high or low ; and if the Third or Fourth Guards 
are required for the defence of the leg, the arm must be ex- 
tended, so that the forte of the blade may receive the foible of 
the opponent's weapon ; bearing well in mind, however, that 
in all cuts at the leg, when at the proper distance, the shifting 
of your own leg and delivering a cut at the same moment, 
becomes the most effective and advantageous defence; and 
which is still more so to a tall man (even in every part of the 
body) when engaged with another of lesser stature, or length 
of arm, as he will be out of his opponents' reach, whilst the 
latter may be within his. The power of defence does not 
consist so much in your own strength of position, as in effect- 
ing a decided quick movement in that direction, in which your 
opponent has the least power of resistance, especially in de- 
fending against the Point, when the First, Third, and Fifth 
Guards are the most effective against the First and Third 
point ; and the Second, Fouth, and Sixth Guards, against the 
Second point ; provided the wrist is previously so placed, that 
the requisite Guards may be quickly executed. The two 
Parries must also be regulated by the position of the oppo- 
nent's wrist, so that the bearing of your sword may tend to 
open his hand, and, if well judged and timely given, will 
disarm him ; or so cripple his wrist, as to preclude even the 
capability of forming a defensive guard, or continuing the 
attack. 

If opposed to the small sword, have recourse to the cuts 
Three and Four, directing them at the arm, by which means 
there is every probability of the cuts taking effect, as it must 
always, in thrusting, come within range of the Edge, before 
the point can be sufficiently advanced to reach the body. If 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 119 

the above cuts are quickly given and continued, they will also 
be found advantageous in advancing against the small sword, 
as they form an Attack and Defence at the same instant ; but 
should the opponent be the most skilful and quickest, then it 
is best to retire while forming them, cautiously preserving the 
proper distance, so that each cut may just reach the fore part ' 
of his arm. 

The Second Point, if delivered as a first movement, should 
be given with great caution, the wrist being then so liable to 
the disarm. It should be resorted to chiefly in the return, or 
after a Feint from the outside or inside Guards ; if from the 
former, Feint Third Point under, and deliver Second Point 
over the arm ; if from the latter, Feint cut Two, and continue 
the sweep of the sword, until the point is sufficiently lowered 
to deliver without pause the Second Point at the body under 
the arm. 

Although a regular mode is laid down for drawing the 
sword, yet occasional practice should be given to come to the 
Guard immediately, and at any required point, without going 
through the Parade Motions, &c, which will prepare the 
Swordsman for any sudden attack of an Enemy. 



120 



SIMPLER METHOD FOR THE BROAD SWORD. 



The general position of the body, according to this method, 
is the same as for fencing. But the arm is more bent, and the 
point of the sword more elevated; so that it is somewhat 
higher than the head. 

Two guards and one time-thrust are all the defensive means 
employed. 

On coming on guard with the quarte position, it is so 
decidedly taken as to prevent the possibility of a straight 
thrust or cut on the left side. The left side being thus out of 
danger, the attention can be more exclusively devoted to the 
right. 

In cutting from quarte to tierce, and vice versd, the sword 
should be drawn no further back than is necessary to clear the 
adversary's. 

In cutting at the adversary's sword-arm, or wrist, the exten- 
tion is sufficient without the longe. 

In all other cases, the longe is necessary. 

All cuts aimed at the right side of the body or head, are 
guarded by simultaneously turning the hand into tierce, con- 
tracting the elbow, and raising the point. 

All cuts aimed at the left side of the body or head, are 
guarded by turning the hand into quarte, contracting the 
elbow, and raising the point. 

In passing from the guard of quarte to that of tierce, the 
fort and foible of the sword move each exactly the same dis- 
tance from the left to the right, and vice versd : so that the 
two positions are parallel. In both of them, the sword inclines 
a little to the left. 



SIMPLER METHOD FOR THE BROAD SWORD. 121 

The return from the guard of tierce is at the outside of the 
arm, the head, or the leg. 

The return from the guard of quarte is at the head, inside of 
the breast, or leg. 

The cut under the wrist from the inside guard, quarte, is 
guarded by following the adversary's blade with a half-circle, 
like the first half of the counter in quarte. 

The legs are protected by drawing the right back behind 
the left, and thrusting straight at the adversary's head or 
breast the moment he attacks them. 

The great advantage which this method has over the pre- 
ceding, is, that it is so much more easily acquired. The diffi- 
culty of following, with the seven guards of the military 
school, all the feints which the adversary may make, is very 
great. 

It has been objected, that the mode of defending the legs 
according to this plan, is dangerous in practising with the 
sticks. This objection is easily avoided by the players agreeing 
before they begin not to attack the legs. 



122 



THE QUINTAIN, 



As an excellent sword-exercise, this is worthy of being 
practised* It is here given from Strutt, with some improve- 
ment of method. 

The quintain, originally, was nothing more than the trunk 
of a tree or a post, set up for the practice of tyros, and 
was called the pel, from the Latin pains. It was six feet in 
height above the ground, and so firmly fixed therein as not 
to be moved by the strokes that were laid upon it. — Fig. 97- 



97 




Tilcing, or combating at the quintain, is a military exercise 
of high antiquity. The exercise of the pel is spoken of by 
Vegetius, who tells us that this species of mock combat was 
in common use among the Romans, who caused the young 



ITS FIRST FORMS. 123 

military men to practise at it twice in the day, at morning and 
noon ; and he adds, that they used clubs and javelins, heavier 
than common, and fought at the pel as if they were opposing 
an adversary, &c. In the code of laws established by the 
Emperor Justinian, the pel is mentioned as a well known 
sport ; and permitted to be continued, upon condition that it 
should be performed with pointless spears, contrary to the 
ancient usage, which it seems required them to have heads or 
points. 

In its original state, it was not confined to the exercise of 
young warriors on horseback; it was an object of practice 
for them on foot, in order to acquire strength and skill in 
assaulting an enemy with their swords, spears, and battle- 
axes. 

The practitioner was then to assail the pel, armed with sword 
and shield, in the same manner as he would an adversary, 
aiming his blows as if at the head, the face, the arms, the 
legs, the thighs, and the sides ; and taking care at all times to 
keep himself so completely covered with his shield, as not 
to give any advantage, supposing he had a real enemy to 
cope with. 

Afterwards, a staff or spear was fixed in the earth; and a 
shield being hung upon it, was the mark to strike at. The 
dexterity of the performer consisted in smiting the shield in 
such a manner as to break the ligatures, and bear it to the 
ground. 

As the rules of chivalry would not admit of any person, 
under the rank of an esquire, to enter the lists as a combatant 
at the justs and tournaments, the burgesses and yeomen had 
recourse to the exercise of the quintain, which was not pro- 
hibited to any class of the people. But, as the performers 
were generally young men whose finances would not at all 
times admit of much expense, the quintain was frequently 
nothing better than a stake fixed into the ground, with a flat 
piece of board made fast to the upper part of it, as a substi- 
tute for the shield that had been used in times remote; and 

k2 



124 



THE QUINTAIN. 



such as could not procure horses, contented themselves with 
running at this mark on foot. — Fig. 98. 



98 




In process of time, this diversion was improved ; and instead 
of the staff and the shield, the resemblance of a human figure, 
carved in wood, was introduced. To render the appearance of 
this figure more formidable, it was generally made in the like- 
ness of a Turk or a Saracen, armed at all points, bearing a 
shield upon his left arm, and brandishing a club or a sabre 
with his right. Hence this exercise was called by the Italians, 
" running at the armed man, or at the Saracen." — Fig. 99. 



99 




THE SARACEN. 125 

The quintain, thus fashioned, was placed upon a pivot, 
and so contrived as to move round with facility. In running 
at this figure, it was necessary for the horseman to direct his 
lance with great adroitness, and make his stroke upon the 
forehead between the eyes, or upon the nose ; for if he struck 
wide of those parts, especially upon the shield, the quintain 
turned about with much velocity; and, in case he was not 
exceedingly careful, would give him a severe blow upon the 
back with the wooden sabre held in the right hand, which 
was considered as highly disgraceful to the performer, while 
it excited the laughter and ridicule of the spectators. 

When many were engaged in running at the Saracen, the 
conqueror was declared from the number of strokes he had 
made, and the value of them; for instance, if he struck the 
image upon the top of the nose between the eyes, it was 
reckoned for three ; if below the eyes, upon the nose, for two ; 
if under the nose, to the point of the chin, for one; all other 
strokes were not counted; but whoever struck upon the 
shield, and turned the quintain round, was not permitted to 
run again upon the same day, but forfeited his courses as a 
punishment for his unskilfulness. 

Others made use of a moveable quintain, which was very 
simply constructed; consisting only of a cross-bar, turning 
upon a pivot, with a broad part to strike against on one side, 
and a bag of earth, or sand, depending from the other. There 
was a double advantage in these kinds of quintains: they 
were cheap, and easily procured. " He," says Stow, " that 
hit not the board end of the quintain was laughed to scorn; 
and he that hit it full, if he rode not the faster, had a sound 
blow upon his neck with a bag full of sand, hanged on the 
other end."— Fig. 100. 

The form of the modern quintain is more fully described by 
Dr. Piatt, in his History of Oxfordshire : — " They first set 
a post perpendicularly into the ground, and then place a 
slender piece of timber on the top of it on a spindle, with 
a board nailed to it on one end, and a bag of sand hanging at 



126 



THE QUINTAIN. 



the other; against this board they anciently rode with spears. 
I saw it at Deddington, in this county, only with strong staves, 



100 




which violently bringing about the bag of sand, if they make 
not good speed away, it strikes them in the neck or shoulders, 
and sometimes knocks them off their horses ; the great design 
of this sport being to try the agility both of horse and man, 
and to break the board. It is now," he adds, " only in 
request at marriages, and set up in the way for young men to 
ride at as they carry home the bride ; he that breaks the board 
being counted the best man." 

All writers recommend the use of arms of double weight 
upon these occasions, in order to confer strength, and give the 
warrior greater facility in wielding weapons of the ordinary 



size. 



The military men, in the middle ages, would sometimes 
also practise with their lances at a man completely armed ; 
whose business it was to act upon the defensive, and parry 
their blows with his shield. Ducange, accordingly introduces 
one knight saying to another, " I do not by any means esteem 
you sufficiently valiant (si bon chevalier) for me to take a 
lance and just with you; therefore, I desire you to retire some 



THB WATER QUINTAIN. 127 

distance from me, and then run at me with all your force, and 
I will he your quaintain." — Fig. 101 * 



101 




THE WATER QUINTAIN. 

Fitzstephen speaks of an exercise of this kind, which was 
usually practised hy the young Londoners upon the water 
during the Easter Holidays. A pole, or mast, he says, is 
fixed in the midst of the Thames, with a shield strongly 
attached to it; and a boat being previously placed at some 
distance, is driven swiftly towards it by the force of oars and 
the violence of the tide, having a young man standing in the 
prow, who holds a lance in his hand, with which he is to 
strike the shield. If he be dexterous enough to break the 
lance against it, and retain his place, his most sanguine wishes 
are satisfied; on the contrary, if the lance be not broken, 
he is sure to be thrown into the water, and the vessel goes 
away without him; but at the same time two other boats 
are stationed near to the shield, and furnished with many 
young persons, who are in readiness to rescue the champion 
from danger. It appears to have been a very popular pastime ; 
for the bridge, the wharfs, and the houses near the river, were 



THE QUINTAIN. 



crowded with people on this occasion, who come," saya the 
author, "to we the (porta, will make themselves merry." 
—Fig. 102. 



SUNNING AT THE RING. 

Tilting, or, aa it is moat commonly called, running at. the 
ring, was also a fashionable pastime in former days. The ring 
is evidently derived from the quintain ; and indeed the sport 
itself is frequently called running or tilting at the quintain. 

The excellence of the pastime waa to ride at full speed, and 
thrust the point of the lance through the ring, which was 
supported in a case or sheath, by means of two springs, but 
might be readily drawn out by the force of the stroke, and 
remain upon the top of the lance. 

Fig. 103 shows the form of the ring, with the aheath, and 
the manner in which it was attached to the upright supporter, 
from Pluvinel. The letter A indicates the ring detached from 
the sheath; and B represents the sheath, with the ring inserted 
and attached to the upright post, in which there are several 
holes to raise or lower the ring to suit the convenience of the 
performer. The ring, says the same author, ought to be 
placed with much precision, somewhat higher than the left 



BUNNING AT THB RING. 129 

eyebrow of the practitioner, when sitting upon his horse ; 
because it ia necessary for him to itoop a little in running 
towards it. 

Fig. 103 »lso represent* the method of performing the 

<>t praise. 



Pluvinel says, the length of the course was measured, and 
marked out according to the properties of the horses that 
were to run : for one of the swiftest kind, one hundred paces 
from the starting place to the ring, and thirty paces beyond 
it, to stop him, were deemed necessary ; but for such horses 
as had been trained to the exercise, and were more regular in 
their movements, eighty paces to the ring, and twenty beyond 
it, were thought to be sufficient. 

In tilting at the ring, three courses were allowed to each 
candidate; and he who thrust the point of his lance through 
it the oftenest, or, in case no such thing was done, struck it 
the most frequently, was the victor ; but if it so happened, 



that none of them did either the one or the other, or that they 
were equally successful, the courses were to be repeated until 
the superiority of one put an end to the content. 



TILTING AT A WATER BUTT. 

There is in a manuscript in the Bodleian Library, dated 
1343, a representation of three buys tilting jointly at a tub 
full of water, which is to be struck in such a manner as not to 
throw it over them. It is presumed that they are learners 
only, and that, therefore, they are depicted without their 
clothes, as having undressed themselves, in order to save their 
garments from being wetted in case the attempt should prove 
unsuccessful. — Fig. 104. 

KM 



This farcical pastime, according to Menestrier, was prac- 
tised occasionally in Italy; where, he says, a large bucket, 
filled with water, is set up, against which they tilt their lances; 
and if the stroke be not made with great dexterity, the bucket 
is overset, and the lanceman thoroughly drenched with the 



131 



EXERCISE WITH BALLS OR STONES. 



Balls are easily found ; and, if not, round stones of different 
weights may be used, so as to apportion them to the strength 
of the learner. The object in view is simply to hurl the 
weight used to the greatest distance, or to the greatest height 
possible, according to the nature of the muscular development 
or the kind of skill which is desirable. 

In order to attain this result, the pupil must turn all the 
strength he possesses to advantage, and direct the object 
discharged in the line best suited to that purpose. If it is 
required to hurl it to the greatest possible distance, three 
movements are described by the arm backwards one after the 
other, and after the third the right arm and left leg are 
advanced, and the object is delivered when the arm is in a 
horizontal position; for if it were delivered previously, the 
ball would strike the ground too soon; and if delivered with 
the arm too elevated, it would describe a parallel so high as 
to diminish its force. In all cases the legs should be some- 
what apart. 

In throwing a body to the greatest possible height, the 
rules are different. For this purpose, the body must receive 
an impulse upwards from the ground. 

This exercise should be practised with both hands ; and, if 
necessary, with the left more frequently than the right. 



132 



THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 



The gun may be considered in relation to the barrel, the 
stock, the lock, the art of shooting, &c. 

The best Birmingham barrels, made for the principal 
town gunsmiths, are preferable to all others. 

A barrel which is substantial and rather heavy, is to be 
preferred ; and its principal strength should be about a foot 
from the breech, against which the greatest shock is directed. , 

Barrels which have specks or flaws are carefully to be 
rejected. On proving a barrel by water, it will filter through 
these flaws, and on passing the hand over' it, their dampness 
will show where they are. 

The force commonly employed in proving guns, renders 
many unsound, and they consequently burst after passing the 
proof-house. 

Barrels should be taken out of their stocks, and looked into 
against the light, in order to ascertain whether they are uni- 
formly bored ; for without that, they are useless. 

The breech should be very strong ; and the parabolic form, 
the opening from the chamber to the barrel, wide enough to 
give free vent to the ignited power ; and Golding's improve- 
ment, producing central ignition, are approved by most per- 
sons. 

The stock is generally of well seasoned walnut, as knotty 
as possible. 

Short-necked persons require straight stocks; and even 
long-necked people should not have them bent so much as 
they usually are. 






THE GUN. 133 

Persons whose arms are not lengthy, require stocks short 
enough to allow them the command of the trigger. In all 
cases, however, the stock should he long enough to permit the 
cheek to rest on the swell or full part of the wood, and not to 
throw it forward on the small part, and thereby place the eyes 
under the line of sight. 

It is a common fault that so much of the swell is pared 
away, to make guns light, that the shooter must stretch his 
neck, and forcibly press his cheek, in order to place it 
steadily. 

It is another fault, that the butt, being made narrow, rests 
merely on the top of the shoulder, instead of more generally 
applying to it and giving a view over the barrel, affording 
a firmer grasp, and preventing the recoil becoming unpleasant. 
The butt-plate should be laid on flat instead of being curved. 

After much shooting, a few drops of linseed oil may be 
rubbed over the wood of the gun. 

As to the lock, Golding's convex one carries the cock to 
the centre of the breech, and instantaneously ignites the 
whole charge ; and his safety-guard is also a valuable improve- 
ment. 

The advantages of Jones's patent guns are, — the obtaining 
of a direct central fire ; the certainty of not missing fire ; the 
superior quickness of the fire ; the superior strength of the 
fire; the diminished recoil of the gun; the protection of the 
eyes from the flying off of the copper caps ; the removal of the 
annoyance of the flash in firing; the protection of the priming 
caps from wet ; the impossibility of blowing out the nipples ; 
the locks being imperviable to wet; the great simplification 
in the construction of the locks; the superior mechanical 
action of the locks; the superior strength of the stock; the 
general superiority and greater durability of the gun. 

If a shooter uses different guns, their locks should require 
the same pull, as deviations in this respect often cause the 
ablest to miss. 
To acquire the art of shooting, the learner must be taught 



134 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

to put a gun which he can manage to his shoulder, with the 
breech and sight on a level, and must first practise until he 
can bring them up to a wafer, with perfect precision. 

He must nest, with a wooden driver, instead of a flint, 
practise at this; remembering that the first sight is always 
the best, and, therefore, that the instant the gun is brought 
up to the centre of the wafer, the trigger must be pulled. 

When he can pull the trigger without starting, he may 
practise with powder, until he becomes steady. 

Finally, he may load his gun with shot. 

Some cautions are worthy of attention. 

The muzzle of the gun should not be allowed to hang down- 
wards, as the shot may then fall from the powder ; and if a 
considerable space is thus left empty, and the gun fired with 
its muzzle low, the barrel may burst. 

By thus carrying a gun, moreover, men and animals are in 
perpetual danger. 

It is very dangerous to pour the charge from the flask into 
the barrel, as the whole contents of the former may be thus 
instantly exploded, if any tow, left in the gun, continue on 
fire. Explosions of this kind generally happen at the second 
or some subsequent time of pouring in powder. 

The barrel should be washed out, first with cold and then 
with hot water, using, in drying, only linen rag. — A scraper 
should not be used for the inside of the barrel, as it may 
thereby be made rough. — The tyro should not take his lock to 
pieces. It does not need oil more than three or four times a 
year, by means of a piece of linen merely moistened there- 
with, and rubbed over the iron work. — Accidents happen 
daily from keeping guns in which the barrel is injured, or the 
lock enfeebled. 



135 



INSTRUCTION OF THE LEARNER WITHOUT ARMS. 

Single Rank, at Open Order. 

Open order is taken by each learner stretching out his right 
arm, and keeping that distance from his right hand man. 

Position of the Soldier. 

The equal squareness of the shoulders and body to the front 
is the first and great principle of the position of a soldier. 
The heels must be in a line, and closed ; the knees straight ; 
the toes turned out, so that the feet may form an angle of 
60 degrees ; the arms hanging close to the body ; the elbows 
turned in, and close to the side ; the hands open to the front, 
with the view of preserving the elbow in the indispensable 
position, as above described, and thereby of preventing false 
distances when marching in line; the little fingers lightly 
touching the seams of the trowsers, with the thumb close to 
the forefinger; the belly rather drawn in, and the breast 
advanced, but without constraint; the body upright, but 
inclining forward, so that the weight of it may principally bear 
on the fore part of the feet; the head to be erect, and the 
eyes straight to the fron,t. 

In order to supple the learner, open his chest, and give 
freedom to the muscles : he is practised in the three first 
movements of the extension motions as laid down for the 
Sword Exercise. 

Too many methods cannot be used to improve the carriage 
of the learner, and banish the air of the rustic. But the greatest 
care must be taken not to throw the body backward instead of 
forward, as being contrary to every true principle of move- 
ment. 



136 THE GUN AND ITS EXERCISE. 

N.B. The headings, which are joined to each paragraph, 
are the words of command to he given by the instructor. 

Standing at Ease. 

Stand at Ease. — On the words Stand at Ease, the right foot 
is to he drawn hack ahout six inches, and the greatest part of 
the weight of the body brought upon it; the left knee is a 
little hent ; the hands brought together before the body; the 
palm* being struck smartly together, and that of the right 
hand then slipped over the hack of the left ; but the shoulders 
to be kept back and square ; the head to the front, and the 
whole attitude without constraint. 

Attention. — On the word Attention, the hands are to fall 
smartly upon the outside of the thighs ; the right heel to be 
brought up in a line with the left ; and the proper unconstrained 
position of a soldier immediately resumed. 

When the learner falls in for instruction, he is first taught 
to place himself, on the word Attention, in the position above 
described, to remain perfectly steady, and to give his whole 
attention to his commander. Before the word Attention is 
given, and, occasionally, during the time of drill, the learner is 
occasionally allowed to rest by Standing at Ease, as above 
explained. 

Eyes to the Bight. 

Eyes Right. Eyes Left. Eyes Front. — On the words Eyes 
Right, glance the eyes to the right with a slight turn of the 
head. At the words Eyes Left, cast the eyes in like manner to 
the left. On the words Eyes Front, the look and head are 
to be directly to the front, the habitual position of the soldier. 

These motions are useful on the wheeling of divisions, — 
or in closing to a flank, — or when dressing is ordered after 
a halt ; and particular attention is paid, in the several turnings 
of the eyes, to prevent the soldier from moving his body, 



INSTRUCTION OF THE LEARNER WITHOUT ARMS 13/ 

which is preserved perfectly square to the front; but in all 
marches to the front, the learner, at Open Order, is taught to 
select objects in his front, and to march straight upon them : 
at Close Order, the touch, with the preservation of a uniform 
and proper cadence, forms his only guide in marching. 

The Facings. 

In going through the facings, the left heel never quits the 
ground ; the body must rather incline forward, and the knees 
be kept straight. 

The Bight Face. — 1st. Place the hollow of the right foot 
smartly against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square to 
the front. 

2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the right on both heels. 

To the Left Face. — 1st. Place the right heel against the 
hollow of the left foot, keeping the shoulders square to the 
front. 

2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the left on both heels. 

To the Right about Face. — 1st. Place the ball of the right 
toe against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square to the 
front. 

2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the right about on both 
heels. 

3rd. Bring the right foot smartly back in a line with the 
left. 

To the Left about Face. — 1st. Place the right heel against 
the ball of the left toe, keeping the shoulders square to the 
front. 

2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the left about on both 
heels. 

3rd. Bring up the right smartly in a line with the left. 



138 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

Right, or Left, Half Face.— On the word of command 
Right or Left Half Face, each man will make an exact half 
face, as directed, by drawing back or advancing the right 
foot one inch, by which the whole will stand individually in 
echellon. 

Front. — When it is intended to resume the original front, 
the word of command Front will be given, and the whole will 
face, as accurately as possible, to their former front. 

Right or Left about Three-Quarters Face. — Front. — When 
it is necessary to perform the diagonal march to the rear, the 
learner will receive the word Right (or Left about) three- 
quarters face, upon which he brings the right foot (not the 
ball of the toe) to the left heel, or the right heel to the ball 
of the left foot, and makes a three-quarters face in the given 
direction. Upon the word Front, if he has faced to the right, 
he fronts to the left; and if he has faced to the left, he 
fronts to the right. 

The feet, in the first of the above motions, are slipped 
back or brought forward without a jerk ; the movement being 
from the hip, so that the body is kept perfectly steady until 
faced. 

The greatest precision must be observed in these facings. 

Position in Marching. 

In marching, the soldier maintains the position of the body 
as before directed. He must be well balanced on his limbs. 
His arms and hands must be kept perfectly steady by his 
sides, and on no account be suffered to move or vibrate; 
care must be taken that the hand does not cling to the thigh, 
or partake in the least degree of the movement of the limb. 
The body must be kept erect and square to the front. The 
movement of the leg and thigh must spring from the hanch, 
and be free and natural. The foot must be raised sufficiently 
high to clear the ground without grazing it, carried straight to 



INSTRUCTION TO THE LEARNER WITHOUT ARMS. 139 

the front ; and, without being drawn back, placed softly on 
the ground, so as not to jerk or shake the body in the slightest 
degree. The head to be kept well up, and straight to the 
front, and the eyes not to be turned to the right or left. 



Balance Step. 

The learner being placed in the position of the soldier, as 
above described, is instructed in the balance step, the object 
of which is to teach him the free movement of his limbs, 
preserving, at the same time, perfect squareness of shoulders, 
with the utmost steadiness of body ; and no labour is spared 
to attain this first and most essential object, which forms 
indeed the very foundation of good marching. The instructor 
is careful that the learner does not contract a habit of drooping 
or throwing back a shoulder at these motions, which are in- 
tended practically to shew the true principles of marching, 
and that steadiness of body is compatible with perfect freedom 
in the limbs. 

1st. Without gaining Ground. 

Caution. — Balance step without gaining ground, com- 
mencing with the left foot. 

The left foot is brought quietly forward, with the toe at the 
proper angle to the left, the foot about three inches from the 
ground, the left heel in line with the toe of the right foot. 

Rear. — When steady the left foot is brought gently back 
(without a jerk), the left knee a tittle bent, the left toe brought 
close to the right heel. The left foot, in this position, will 
not be so flat as to the front, as the toe will be a little 
depressed. 

Front. — Halt. — When steady, the word Front will be given 
as above, and repeated to the Bear three or four times ; to 
prevent the learners being fatigued, the word Halt will be 

l 2 



140 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

given, when the left foot,. either advanced, or to the rear, 
will be brought to the right. 

The instructor afterwards makes the learner balance upon 
the left foot, advancing and retiring the right in the same 
manner. 



2dly. Gaining Ground by the word Forward. 

Front. — On the word Front, the left foot is brought gently 
to the front without a jerk ; the knee to be gradually straight- 
ened as the foot is brought forward, the toe turned out a little 
to the left, and remaining about three inches from the ground. 
In this posture he remains for a few seconds only in the first 
instance, till practice has steadied him in the position. 

Forward. — On this word of command, the left foot is 
brought to the ground, at thirty inches from heel to heel, 
while the right foot is raised at the same moment, and con- 
tinues extended to the rear. The body remains upright, but 
inclining forward ; the head erect, and neither turned to the 
right nor left. 

Front. — On the word Front, the right foot is brought for- 
ward, and so on. 

Slow Step. 

March. — On the word March, the left foot is carried thirty 
inches to the front, and without being drawn back is placed 
softly on the ground so as not to jerk or shake the body; the 
learner is to be taught to take seventy-five of these steps in a 
minute. 

The learner is carefully trained, and thoroughly instructed in 
this step, as an essential foundation for arriving at accuracy in 
the paces of more celerity. This is the slowest step at which, 
troops are to move. 



INSTRUCTION TO THE LEARNER WITHOUT ARMS. 141 

The Halt. 

Halt.— On the word Halt, let the rear foot he brought upon 
a line with the advanced one, so as to finish the step which 
was being taken when the command was given. 

N. B. The words Halt, Dress, are considered as one word of 
command. 

Three or four learners are now formed in one rank at open 
distance, and instructed as follows : — 

Stepping Out. 

Step Out. — The squad marches, as already directed in slow 
time. On the word, Seep Out, the learner must be taught to 
lengthen his step to thirty-three inches, by leaning forward a 
little, but without altering the cadence. 

This step is necessary, when a temporary exertion in line, 
and to the front, is required, and is applied both to slow and 
quick time ; and at the word (slow or quick step) the pace of 
thirty inches must be resumed. 

Stepping Short. 

Step Short. — Forward. — On the word Step Short, the foot 
advancing will finish its pace, and afterwards each learner will 
step as far as the ball of his toe, and no further, until the 
word Forward be given, when the usual pace of 30 inches is to 
be taken. 

This step is useful when a momentary retardment of either 
a battalion in line, or of a division in column, is required. 

Marking Time. 

Mark Time. — Forward. — On the words Mark Time, the 
foot then advancing completes its pace, after which the cadence 
is continued, without gaining any ground, but alternately 
throwing out the foot and bringing it back square with the 
other. At the word Forward, the usual pace of thirty inches 
will be taken. 



142 THE GUN, AND ITS EXEBCISE. 

This step is necessary when a column, division, &c, on the 
march, has to wait for the coming up of others. 

The Side or Closing Step. 

The Side or Closing Step is performed from the halt in 
quick time, by the following commands : — 

Bight Close — Quick March. 
Left Close — Quick March. 

Right Close, March. — Halt. — In closing to the right, on 
the word Quick March, eyes are turned to the right, and each 
man carries his right foot about ten inches directly to his 
right (or, if the files are closed, to his neighbour's left foot), 
and instantly brings up his left foot, till the heel touches his 
right heel, and proceeds to take the next step in the same 
manner ; the whole with perfect precision of time, shoulders 
kept square, knees not bent, and in the true line on which the 
body is formed. At the word Halt, the whole halt, turn their 
eyes to the front, and are perfectly steady. 

Note. — In closing on rough or broken ground, the knees 
must necessarily be bent. 

Stepping Back. 

Step Back, March. — Halt. — The Step Back is performed in 
the slow time and pace of thirty inches, from the halt. On 
the command Step Back, March, the learner must be taught 
to move straight to the rear, preserving his shoulders square 
to the front, and his body erect. On the word Halt, the foot 
in front must be brought back square with the other. 

A few paces only of the Step Back can be necessary at a 
time. 

Changing the Feet. 

Change Feet — To change the feet in marching, the ad- 
vanced foot completes its pace, the ball of the other is 



INSTRUCTION TO THE LEARNER WITHOUT ARMS. 143 

brought up quickly to the heel of the advanced one, which 
instantly makes another step forward, so that the cadence may 
not be lost. 

This may be required of an individual who is stepping with 
a different foot from the rest of his division $ in doing which 
he will, in fact, take two successive steps with the same foot. 

Oblique Step. 

To the Left Oblique, March. — When the learner has ac- 
quired the regular length and cadence of the slow pace, he 
is to be taught the Oblique Step. At the words, To the 
Left Oblique, March, without altering his personal squareness 
of position, he will, when he is to step with his left foot, point 
and carry it forward nineteen inches in the diagonal line 
to the left, which gives about thirteen inches to the side, and 
about thirteen inches to the front. On the word Two, he 
will bring his right foot thirty inches forward, so that the 
right heel be placed thirteen inches directly before the left 
one. In this position he will pause; and on the word Two, 
continue to march, as before directed, by advancing his left 
foot nineteen inches, pausing at each step till confirmed in his 
position; it being essentially necessary to take the greatest 
care that his shoulders be preserved square to the front. From 
the combination of these two movements, the general ob- 
liquity gained will amount to an angle of about twenty-five 
degrees. When the learner is habituated to the lengths and 
directions of the step, he must be made to continue the march, 
without pausing, and with firmness ; when he has been made 
perfect in the oblique step in slow time, he must be instructed 
in quick time on the same principle. 

As all marching (the side step excepted) invariably begins 
with the left foot, whether the obliquing commences from the 
halt, or on the march, the first diagonal step taken is by the 
leading foot of the side inclined to, when it comes to its 
turn, after the command is pronounced. 

The squareness of the person, and the habitual cadenced 



144 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

step, in consequence, are the great directions of the oblique, 
as well as of the direct march. 

Each learner is separately and carefully instructed in the 
principles of the foregoing portions of the drill. They form 
the basis of all military movements. 

The Quick Step. 

The cadence of the slow pace having become perfectly 
habitual to the learners, they are now taught to march a quick 
time, which is one hundred and eight steps in a minute, each 
of thirty inches, making two hundred and seventy feet in a 
minute. 

Quick March. — The command, Quick March, being given 
with a pause between them, the word Quick is be to considered 
as a caution, and the whole to remain perfectly steady. On 
the word March, the whole move off, conforming to the 
directions given. 

After the learner is perfectly grounded in matching to the 
front in quick time, all the alterations of step, as above, for 
slow time, are practised in the quick time. 

This is the pace which is applied generally to all movements 
by large as well as small bodies of troops ; and, therefore, the 
learner is trained and thoroughly instructed in this essential 
part of his duty. 

The Double March. 

The directions for the March, in the preceding section, 
apply, in a great degree, to this step, which is one hundred 
and fifty steps in the minute, each of thirty-six inches, 
making four hundred and fifty feet in a minute. 

Double March. — On the word Double March, the whole 
step off together with the left feet; keeping the heads erect, 
and the shoulders square to the front ; the knees are a little 
bent; the body is more advanced than in the other marches ; 



INSTRUCTION OF THE LEARNER WITHOUT ARMS. 145 

the arms hang with ease down the outside of the thigh. The 
instructor is careful to habituate the learner to the full pace of 
thirty-six inches, otherwise he will get into the habit of a 
short trot, which would defeat the obvious advantages of this 
degree of march. 

Halt. — As directed before* 

The word March, given singly, at all times denotes that 
slow time is to be taken ; when the Quick, or Double March, 
is meant, the words Quick, or Double, as a caution, precede 
the word March. 

The great advantage attending the constant use of the 
plummet must be obvious ; and the several lengths swinging 
the different marches in a minute, are as follows : — 

In. Hun. 

Slow time, 75 steps in the minute . . 24*96 

Quick time, 108 1203 

Double march, 150 6*26 

A musket-ball, suspended by a string, which is not subject 
to stretch, and on which are marked the different required 
lengths, will answer the above purpose, may be easily ac- 
quired, and, in the army, is frequently compared with an accu- 
rate standard in the adjutant's possession. The length of the 
plummet is measured from the point of suspension to the 
centre of the ball. 



SINGLE RANK AT CLOSE ORDER. 

Six or eight learners are now formed in rank at close files, 
having a steady well-drilled man on their flank to lead, and are 
then carefully instructed in the touch, which in close order 
constitutes the principal guide and regulator in marching. 
Each man, when properly in line, should feel his right or left 
hand man (towards the point of direction) at the thick part 



146 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

of the arm immediately below the elbow, which must continue 
turned in and close to the side. The fingers are kept straight, 
the thumb close to the fore-finger, the thumb and fore-finger 
in a small degree turned out (in order to keep the elbows 
close), the edge of the hand very slightly touching the thigh, 
and a little behind the seam of the trousers. The touch 
must be light, and crowding carefully avoided. 

WITH ARMS. 

Position of the Learner. 
When the firelock is shouldered, the person of the learner 
remains in the position described under the head of Close 
Order, except that the wrist of the left hand is turned a little 
out, the better to embrace the butt. The firelock is placed in 
the hand with the two first joints of the fingers grasping the 
inside of the butt, the thumb alone to appear in front. The 
piece is carried at the full length of the arm, the butt a little 
forward, the fore part nearly even with that of the thigh ; the 
hind part of it lightly touching the thigh, when stationary, 
without being in the least degree affected by it when in 
motion. The firelock rests upon the hollow of the shoulder, 
and is held firm and steady. 

Different Motions of the Firelock. 
The following motions of the firelock are taught and prac- 
tised as here set down, until each learner is perfect in them ; 
they being necessary for the ease of the soldier in the course 
of exercise. 

As mentioned in the Manual Exercise. 
Supporting arms. 
Sloping arms. 
Carrying arms. 
Ordering arms. 
Standing at ease. 
Attention. 
Shouldering from the order. 



• * 



THB MANUAL EXERCISE. 147 

The learner is accustomed to carry his arms for a consider- 
able time together; it is most essential he should do so, and 
not be allowed to support or slope them so often as is prac- 
tised, under the idea that long carrying them is a position of 
too much constraint. 

THE MANUAL EXERCISE. 

1st. Secure Arms. — 1st. Bring the right hand briskly up, 
and place it under the cock, the fore-finger touching the back 
part of it, the thumb placed between the stock and barrel, and 
pointing to the muzzle, keeping the firelock steady. 

2nd. Quit the butt with the left hand, and seize the firelock 
with it at the swell, bringing the elbow close down upon the 
lock, carefully avoiding to raise or lower the shoulder; the 
right hand kept fast in this motion, and the piece still upright. 

3rd. Quit the right hand, giving the piece a cant with the 
fore-fingers, and bring it down to your right side, bringing the 
firelock down to the secure, under the left arm, the elbow 
thrown a little to the rear, the guard just visible, the thumb 
on the sling, the fingers grasping the barrel, and the hand 
rather below the hip bone. 

2nd. Shoulder Arms. — 1st. Bring the firelock up to the 
perpendicular line, seizing it with the right hand under the 
cock, as the first motion of the secure. 

2nd. Quit the left hand, and strike the butt with the palm, 
grasping it at the same instant. 

3rd. Quit the right hand, and bring it smartly down to the 
right side. 

3rd. Order Arms. — 1st. Seize the firelock with the right 
hand at the lower loop, just at the swell, the elbow close to 
the body. 

2nd. Bring it down to the right side, to the trail, allowing 
the little finger to slip between the stock and barrel, the butt 
as low down as the arm will admit without constraint. 



148 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

3rd. Drop the heel of it on the ground, placing the muzzle 
against the hollow of the right shoulder, and the hand flat 
upon the side of the stock; the thumb only to appear on the 
sling. 

4th. Fix Bayonets. — 1st. At the word Fix, place the 
thumb of the right hand, as quick as possible, behind the 
barrel. 

2nd. As soon as the word of command is fully given, take a 
gripe of the firelock, and push the muzzle a little forward, 
grasping the bayonet with the left hand, the elbow kept well 
forward so as not to interfere with the left-hand man, and 
fixing it with the utmost celerity. The instant this is done, 
return, as quick as possible, to the order, as above described, 
and stand perfectly steady. 

5th. Shoulder Arms. — 1st. As soon as the word Shoulder 
is given, take a gripe of the firelock with the right hand, as in 
fixing bayonets. 

2nd. At the last word, Arms, the firelock must be thrown, 
with the right hand, in one motion, and with as little appear- 
ance of effort as possible, into its proper position on the left 
shoulder. The hand crosses the body in so doing, but must 
instantly be withdrawn. 

6th. Present Arms. — 1st. Seize the firelock with the right 
hand, under the guard, turning the lock to the front, but 
without moving it from the shoulder. 

2nd. Raise the firelock up from the shoulder to the poise, 
by placing the left hand (smartly and with a tell) upon the 
sling, fingers pointing upwards ; the wrist upon the guard, and 
the point of the left thumb of equal height with, and pointing 
to the left eye : the piece to be kept perpendicular in this 
position, the left elbow close to the butt, and right elbow close 
to the body. 

3rd. Bring down the firelock with a quick motion as low as 



THE MANUAL EXERCISE. 149 

the right hand will admit without constraint, making it tell 
with the left hand, drawing back the right foot at the same 
instant, so that the hollow of it may touch the left heel. The 
firelock in this position with the guard to the front, to be 
totally supported in the left hand, and opposite to the left 
thigh ; the right hand lightly holding the small of the butt ; 
the fingers pointing rather downwards; the body to rest 
entirely on the left foot; both knees straight. 

7th. Shoulder Arms. — 1st. By a turn of the right wrist, 
bring the firelock to its proper position on the left shoulder, 
making the motion tell, the left hand grasping the butt, and 
bringing up the right foot at the same instant to its original 
position. 

2nd. Quit the right hand briskly, and bring it down to the 
right side. 

8th. Port Arms. — At one motion throw the firelock from 
the shoulder across the body, meeting it smartly with both 
hands at the same instant, to a diagonal position, in which the 
lock is to be turned to the front, and at the height of the 
breast ; the muzzle slanting upwards, so that the barrel may 
cross opposite the point of the shoulder, with the butt pro- 
portionably depressed. 

The right hand grasps the small of the butt, and the left 
holds the piece at the swell, close to the lower pipe; the 
thumbs of both hands pointing towards the muzzle; both 
elbows close to the body, the fingers of the left hand between 
the stock and barrel. 

9th. Charge Bayonets. — Make a half face to the right, the 
right toe straight off to the right, and the left toe full to the 
front, and bring down the firelock to nearly a horizontal 
position, with the muzzle inclining a little upwards, and the 
right wrist resting against the hollow of the thigh below the 
hip. 



150 THE GUN, AND ITS EXERCISE. 

10th. Shoulder Arms. — 1st. Throw the firelock up to its 
proper position on the left shoulder, the left hand falling 
smartly on the butt, and grasping it, and at the same instant 
coming to your proper front. 

2nd. Quit the right hand smartly, and bring it down to the 
right side. 

11th. Advance Arms. — 1st. Seize the firelock with the right 
hand under the guard, turning the lock to the front, but 
without moving it from the shoulder. 

2nd. Raise the firelock up from the shoulder to the poise, 
by placing the left hand upon the sling, fingers pointing 
upwards, the wrist upon the guard, and the point of the left 
thumb of equal height with, and pointing to, the left eye ; the 
piece to be kept perpendicular in this position. 

3rd. Bring the firelock down to the right side with the right 
hand as low as it will admit without constraint, at the same 
time striking it smartly with the left hand at the swell, the 
guard between the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, 
the three last fingers under the cock, with the guard to the 
front. 

4th. Quit the left hand. 

12th. Order Arms. — At this word the left hand is brought 
smartly across the body, and seizes the firelock, with the fore- 
finger in line with the point of the right shoulder. 

2nd. Bring the firelock down as low as the left arm will 
admit, to the right Bide ; at the same time let the right hand 
seize the top of the ramrod, between the second joint of the 
fore-finger and thumb, the whole of the fingers shut in the hand. 

3rd. Let the firelock drop on the ground, and the right 
hand be smartly brought to the position of ordered arms, 
quitting the left hand short away, at the same instant. 

13th. Advance Arms. — 1st. At the word Advance, the 
thumb of the right hand is slipt quickly in rear of the barrel. 



THE MANUAL EXERCI8B. 151 

At the word Anns, it is brought to the advance by a 
sharp cant of the right hand : the left arm is brought across 
the body, to steady the firelock to the shoulder. 

2nd. Quit the left hand. 

14th. Shoulder Arms. — 1st. Bring up the left hand, and 
seize the piece at the swell, raising it about one inch ; at the 
same instant slip the thumb of the right hand under the cock, 
by a turn of the right wrist. 

2nd. Throw it smartly to its proper position on the left 
shoulder, the left hand falling smartly on the butt, grasping it. 

3rd. Quit the right hand, and bring it to the right side. 

N. B. — In these motions great care must be taken to pre- 
serve the squareness of the body, and to avoid raising or 
sinking the shoulder. 

15th. Support Arms. — 1st. Seize the small of the butt, 
under the lock, with the right hand, the thumb pointing 
upwards. 

2nd. Bring the left arm under the cock. 

3rd. Quit the right hand. 

16th. Stand at Ease. — At this word of command the right 
hand is brought smartly across the body, and seizes the 
firelock at the small of the butt close up under the left arm, 
with the thumb of the right hand pointing upwards, the right 
foot drawn back, the left knee bent, and the firelock a little 
sloped. 

17th. Attention. — At this word of command the right hand 
is dropped smartly to the right side, and the right foot brought 
in line with the left. 

18th. Carry Arms. — 1st. Seize the small of the butt under 
the left arm, with the right hand. 

2nd. Smartly place the left hand grasping the butt, the 
firelock kept steady. 



152 THE GUN, AMD ITS EXBRCI8E. 

3rd. Quit the right hand. At the same instant allowing 
the left arm to sink to the full extent. 

19th. Slope Arms. — In sloping arms the upper part of the 
arm is not to move, the guard of the firelock is to he raised so 
as gently to press against the hollow of the shoulder, the 
hand in a line with the elbow, the toe of the butt in a line 
with the centre of the left thigh. 

20th. Stand at Ease. — On the word Ease, bring the 
right hand smartly across the body, placing it on the left hand, 
both thumbs on the fore part of the heel of the butt, that of 
the left hand uppermost, and drawing the right foot back at 
the same instant, the left knee bent. 

21st. Attention. — At this word of command resume the 
attitude of attention, by bringing the right hand smartly to 
the right side, and the right foot in line with the left. 

22nd. Carry Arms. — 1st. Drop the left arm to its extent, 
and bring the right hand smartly across the body ; the fore 
part of the finger to meet the small of the butt, as in the first 
motion of the Secure. 

2nd. Quit the right hand. 
23rd. Order Arms. — As prescribed before. 

24th. Unfix Bayonets. — At the word Unfix, slip the 
thumb of the right hand in rear of the barrel ; at the last 
sound of the word Bayonets, force the muzzle a little 
forward, bring the left hand smartly to the upper loop, the 
thumb pointing upwards. Strike the bow of the bayonet with 
the heel of the right hand so as to unfix it ; let the bow fall 
over the thumb, and the two fore-fingers on the top of the 
socket, with the left hand force the muzzle of the firelock back 
to its proper position, at the same instant bring the thumb of 



THE MANUAL EXERCISE. 153 

the left hand on the top of the scabbard, for the purpose of 
guiding the bayonet into it ; and bring the right hand smartly 
to the position of ordered arms. 

25th. Stand at Ease. — As before directed. 

It is to be understood that whenever a battalion in line 
charges with bayonets, the whole are in the first instance to 
advance at a firm quick step, with shouldered arms; at the 
word " Prepare to Charge," the firelocks of the front rank 
will be brought to the long trail, and those of the rear rank to 
the slope ; — at the word " Charge" the firelock of the front 
rank will be thrown smartly to the charging position, and the 
pace increases to double march, carefully avoiding, too much 
hurry. The enemy being routed, it will depend on the officer 
commanding to give the word " Halt," when both ranks will 
shoulder arms, and proceed as may be afterwards directed. 

In marching any distance, or in standing at ease, when 
supported, the men are allowed to bring their right hdhd 
across the body, to the small of the butt, which latter must, 
in that case, be thrown a little forward ; the fingers of the left 
hand being uppermost, must be placed between the body and 
the right elbow ; the right hands are to be instantly removed 
when the division halts, or is ordered to dress by the right or 
left. 

TIME. 

The motions in the Manual Exercise are to be performed, 
leaving one pause of the slow time of march between each 
motion, except that of fixing bayonets, in which a longer time 
must be given. One pause should also be made between the 
first and last parts of the words of command ; for instance, 
shoulder (one pause) arms, both in manual and platoon. 



154 



PLATOON EXERCISE AND DIFFERENT FIRINGS. 

Eight or ten learners being formed in a single rank, at close 
files, and shouldered firelocks, are thus taught to fire before 
they are formed in two ranks. 

Ut. As a front rank standing. 

2nd. As a rear rank standing. 

3rd. As a front rank kneeling* 

4th. As a rear rank kneeling. 

As Front Rank Prime and Load. — 1st. Upon the command 
make a quarter face to the right, which will bring the left toe 
direct to the front, the right foot to be drawn back six inches 
in a diagonal direction to the right, at the same time bring 
down the firelock to the priming position with the left hand at 
the swell, the elbow close in front of the left hip, the sidebrass 
touching the right hip, the thumb of the right hand placed in 
front of the steel with the fingers clenched and wrist a little 
turned out, the firelock nearly horizontal. 

2nd. Open the pan by closing the elbow to the side, fingers 
straight along the lock-plate, pointing towards the muzzle. 

Handle Cartridge. — 1st. Draw the cartridge from the pouch. 
2nd. Bring it to the mouth, holding it between the fore- 
finger and thumb, and bite off the top of the cartridge. 

Prime. — 1st. Shake some powder into the pan, and place 
the three fingers on the steel. 
2nd. Shut the pan by closing the elbow. 
3rd. Seize the small of the butt with the ahove three fingers. 

'Bout. — 1st. Turn the piece nimbly round to the loading 
position, meeting the muzzle with the heel of the right hand, 
the butt within two inches of the ground, and the flat of it 
against the left ankle ; at the same time bring up the right 
shoulder to the front, and square the heels. 



PLATOON BXBRCI8B AND DIFFERENT FIRINGS. 155 

2nd. Place the butt on the ground without noise, raise the 
elbow square with the shoulder, shake the powder into the 
barrel, putting in after it the paper and the ball, after which 
the lingers are straight, with the second joint of the fore-finger 
resting on the head of the ramrod, and thumb pointing down* 
wards, elbow square with the shoulder* 

In this position each learner must feel the guard against the 
centre of the left shin, the thumb of the left hand pressed 
against the centre, and in front of the left thigh, the muzzle 
of the firelock to be brought in front of the breast-plate, and 
the barrel to the front. 

3rd. Drop the right elbow close to the body, and seize the 
head of the ramrod with the second joint of the fore-finger 
and thumb. 

Draw Ramrods. — 1st. Force the ramrod half out, and seize 
it back-handed exactly in the middle, with the elbow square 
with the shoulder.' .... 

2nd. Draw it entirely out with a straight arm above the 
shoulder, turning it at the same time to the front, put it one 
inch into the barrel; the ramrod is thus held between the two 
fore-fingers and thumb, with the two last fingers shut in the 
hand. 

Ram down Cartridge. — 1st. Push the ramrod down, holding 
it as before exactly in the middle till the second finger touches 
the muzzle, elbow close. 

2nd. Press the ramrod lightly towards you, and slip the 
two fore-fingers and thumb to the point, then grasp it as 
before. 

3rd. Push the cartridge well down to the bottom. 

4th. Strike it two very quick strokes with the ramrod. 

Return Ramrods. — 1st. Draw the ramrod half out, catching 
it back-handed, with the elbow square. 

2nd. Draw it entirely out with a straight arm above the 

m2 



156 PLATOON EXERCISE AND DIFFERENT FIRINGS. 

shoulder, turning it to the front; put it into the loops, and 
force it as quickly as possible to the bottom, the fore-finger 
and thumb holding the ramrod as in the position immediately 
previous to drawing it, and after a pause of one pace of the 
slow time bring the firelock with one motion to the same 
position as at the word Prime and Load; at the same time 
resuming the half face to the right, and carrying the right 
foot diagonally to the rear. 

As Front Rank Beady. — Place the thumb of the right hand 
on the cock, and fingers behind the guard, and cock the 
piece ; then take a grasp of the butt, fixing the eye stead- 
fastly upon some object in front. 

P'sent. — Bring the firelock up to the present slowly and 
independently, until in line with the object the eye had fixed 
upon; then pull the trigger without a jerk, and when fired, 
remain looking on the aim until the word " Load" is 
given. 

Too much pains cannot be taken to prevent the learner front 
raising his firelock with a jerk; it must be deliberately raised 
until aligned with the object that the eye is fixed upon, 
and so that he may lay the right cheek on the butt without 
too much stooping of the head: particular care must be taken 
that the learner in this position shuts the left eye in taking 
aim, looking along the barrel with the right eye from the 
breech-pin to the muzzle. 

Load. — Bring down the firelock to the priming position, 
and take hold of the cock with the thumb and fingers behind 
the guard, and draw it back to the half cock; the loading 
will be. performed as before directed. 

Shoulder Arms. — Seize the small of the butt, and place the 
firelock on the left shoulder, bringing the shoulders and heels 
square to the front. 



PLATOON EXERCISE AND DIFFERENT FIRINGS. 157 

As Rear Rank, Ready. — Make a half face to the right, 
which will bring the left toe direct to the front, and step with 
the right foot as far to the right as will bring the right toe 
of each man close to the left foot of his right-hand man, and 
pointing to the right; at the same time bring down the fire- 
lock to the right side, seizing it with the left hand at the 
swell, the side-brass to be four inches above the right hip, 
and cock the firelock, fixing the eye on some object in front, 
as before directed* 

P'sent. — Bring up the firelock to the present slowly and 
independently, and pull the trigger when the object is covered, 
as before directed, for front rank. 

Load. — Bring down the firelock to the position described 
for making ready as rear rank, and half-cock, as before 
directed. 

Handle Cartridge. — As before directed. 

Prime. — As before directed. 

'Bout. — Turn the piece nimbly round to the loading po- 
sition, meeting the muzzle with the heel of the right hand, the 
butt within two inches of the ground, and the flat of it against 
the inside of the left ankle, bringing the right shoulder square 
to the front, and keeping the right foot fast. 

2nd. Place the butt on the ground without noise, inside 
the hollow of the left foot, and proceed as before directed. 

Draw Ramrods. — As before directed. 

Ram down Cartridges. — As before directed. 

Return Ramrods. — As before directed; and after a pause of 



■■ \~* * 



158 TO FIRE KNEELING. 

one pace of slow time, bring the firelock to the position of 
prime and load, resuming the right half face. 

TO FIRE KNEELING, 

As Front Rank Kneeling. Ready. — Sink down smartly on 
the right knee, which is to be drawn back about six inches 
from the left heel, the left leg to be perpendicular, the head 
and body erect, the firelock to be brought down to the priming 
position, the side-brass in line with the haunches; then cock 
the piece, and grasp the small of the butt, at the same time 
fixing the eyes steadfastly on some object in front. 

P'sent. — Raise the firelock slowly until in line with the 
object, and fire, as already directed, for front rank standing. 

Load. Handle Cartridge. Prime. — As before directed. 

'Bout. — With the left hand pass the firelock round in front 
of the left knee, and bring it to the left side close to the thigh, 
the butt to the rear, the sling upwards, the muzzle about 
three inches further back than the left knee. 

Load. Draw Ramrods. Ram down Cartridges. Return 
Ramrods. — As before directed, and bring the firelock round in 
front of the left knee to the priming position, by shifting it 
it through the left hand. 

N.B. When the word " Order Arms" is given, the men are 
to spring up to the standing position, bringing the firelock to 
the " Order." 

As Rear Rank Kneeling. Ready. — Sink down smartly on the 
right knee, which is to be drawn back about six inches diago- 
nally to the right of the left heel; the left leg to be perpen- 
dicular, the head and body erect, the firelock to be brought 
down to the priming position, the side-brass four inches above 



TO FIRS KNEELING. 159 

the haunches; then cock the piece, and grasp the small of the 
butt, at the same time fixing the eyes steadfastly on some 
object in front. . 

P*sent. Load. Handle Cartridge. Prime. — As before 
directed. 

'Bout. — Turn the body to the right, and lean to the rear, 
and with the left hand reverse the firelock, bringing the butt 
to the front, the sling upwards, the muzzle about the same 
height as the right elbow. 

The learners, being thoroughly grounded in the foregoing 
instructions, are then practised in two ranks, at close order, in 
the different firings as a company in line, as a wing of a 
battalion, as a battalion firing a volley, file firing, &c. &c. 

From twenty to thirty files are then formed into two ranks 
at close order, with shouldered arms and fixed bayonets. 

Half-cock Arms.— Place the thumb of the right hand in 
front of the cock-screw, and the fore-finger at the same time 
upon the trigger; the cock is then to be drawn a little back, 
and the trigger to be drawn so as to disengage the catch ; the 
cock to be gently let down till the edge of the flint touches 
the hammer ; then quit the trigger, and draw back the cock 
to the catch of the half-cock j the small of the butt to be 
seized with the right hand, and the right foot brought up to 
the left. 

N.B.— A company, wing, or battalion, can prime and load, 
or make ready from the Order, with the same ease as from the 
Shoulder. 

For instance, at the words " Prime and" — slip the thumb 
behind the barrel, and at the word " Load" according to 
direction. 

Any movement can take place from Ordered Arms, as occa- 
sions may require, in the following manner : — Upon the first 
word of the caution, bring the fingers round the barrel, and 



160 



TO KNEEL FIRING. 



raise the butt about one inch from the ground, with the muzzle 
close against the hollow of the shoulder; and at the word 
" Halt/' resume the position of Ordered Arms. 

Trail Arms. — Slip the right hand down to the swell of the 
stock, and lower the muzzle to a horizontal direction ; at the 
same time the rear rank will fall nimbly back a short pace, so 
that the muzzle of the firelock shall touch the cuff of the 
front-rank man's jacket. 

Change Arms. — Change from one hand to the other, as 
often as may be necessary. 



The learners, having a thorough knowledge of the preceding 
portion of the drill, are now formed in four ranks, and prac- 
tise to receive cavalry with two ranks kneeling, as it is neces- 
sary to do so in square four deep. 

Prepare to resist Cavalry. Ready. — The first rank kneel as 
front rank, the second rank kneeling as rear rank, both bring- 
ing at the same time the butt of the firelock in front of the 
right knee, the lock turned uppermost, the right hand lightly 
grasping the small of the butt, holding the firelock firm with 
the left hand at the middle, of that part between the third loop 
and the swell, the lower part of the left arm resting upon the 
thigh, the muzzle of the firelock slanting upwards, so that 
the point of the bayonet will be about the height of a horse's 
nose. 

The third rank make ready as a rear rank, with this differ- 
ence : they will carry the right foot . only, six inches to the 
right ; the fourth rank make ready as rear rank ; in this the 
kneeling ranks do not cock, the two standing ranks will com- 
mence File Firing at the close of the Preparative, or at the 
word " Commence Firing," — and at the close of the General, 



FIRING* 



161 



or at the word " Cease Firing," they will load, and come to 
the front with ordered arms (at the right side), and shoulder 
by word of command, with the kneeling ranks, who will also 
shoulder from the right side; the kneeling ranks may be 
fired if necessary, for which the commander will give the 
words " Kneeling ranks — ready — p'sent," and which they do 
as directed in the foregoing instructions ; then, with a quick 
motion, bring the firelock down to resist cavalry as before, and 
remain perfectly steady till the word " Load" is given. 

N.B. When the word " Load" is given, after firing in a 
square, the kneeling ranks load as front ranks. 

FIRING, 

When the learner has attained a perfect knowledge of the 
Platoon Exercise, he is carefully habituated in taking aim : to 
this great object too much care and attention cannot be de- 
voted; it is the means by which the soldier is taught to fire 
with precision, or, in other words, to kill his enemy ; and it 
cannot be too strongly inculcated, that every man, who has no 
defect in his eyes, may be made a good shot at a fixed object. 
The firelock is placed in the soldier's hands for the destruction 
of his enemy; his own safety depends on his efficient use of 
it, and no degree of perfection he may have attained in the 
other parts of his drill, can, upon service, remedy any want of 
proficiency in this ; indeed, all his other instruction in march- 
ing and manoeuvring, with perfect steadiness and precision, 
can do no more than place him in the best possible situation 
for using his weapons with effect. The true principles upon 
which correct shooting may be taught are extremely simple ; 
they are to be found in the natural connexion that exists 
between the hand and the eye: the eye is the guide and 
regulator of every action of the hand, which can only act the 
part of a subordinate agent; and constant practice must, 
therefore, be employed to perfect the connexion, and enable 
them so to act together, that the hand will readily raise 
the firelock in a line with any object that the eye is fixeo] 



162 FIRING. 

upon. In training the learner to the use of his musket, the 
following instructions are to he carefully attended to. 

The Traversing Rest 

A Traversing Rest is found most useful in teaching the 
learner individually the principles of taking aim, and it also 
enables the instructor to ascertain at once whether the 
learner has any defect in his eye-sight. The rest is a scooped 
piece of wood, placed on a stand, which receives the firelock, 
and is made to elevate, depress, or traverse at will; several 
small bull's-eyes being painted on the barracks, or wall, the 
learner, at one hundred yards, is ordered to aim at any one of 
them. Having done so, he leaves the firelock on the stand, 
and removes himself, in order that the instructor may take 
his place, and look along the sight, to point out, and correct, 
if necessary, any error. The learner thus taught to level accu- 
rately, the stand is set aside, and is on no account afterwards 
used as a rest for taking aim from. 

Aiming at an* Object. 

The learner is next practised in aiming at an object. He is 
to be taught to fix his eyes steadfastly on the bull's-eye, or 
any other object, and with the left eye shut, to raise his 
firelock gradually and horizontally from the priming position, 
until it is accurately aligned. 

Burning Priming. 

The learner having acquired the habit of readily aligning his 
firelock with any object selected by the eye, he is next taught 
to burn priming without winking, or in the slightest degree 
altering the composure of his countenance. The instructor 
will give the command slowly, " Ready," " Present;'* and 
when the learner has covered his object, he will pull the 
trigger by the steady pressure of the finger, and without the 
smallest jerk, continuing to cover the object after snapping, 
with the cheek down on the butt, until the word " Load" is 



FIRING. 163 

given. The slightest motion of the arm or wrist in pulling 
the trigger must he carefully avoided, as it would, in firing, 
completely change the direction of the hall; and the more 
accurate the aim, the smaller would, in consequence, he the 
chance of hitting the object aimed at. The instructor must 
watch the learner minutely in this practice, which must be 
continued until the eye is perfectly indifferent to the flash 
caused by the ignition of the powder. 

Blank Cartridge, 

The learner, in loading, is instructed to shake the powder 
well out of the cartridge, and to ram the paper, as wadding, 
home. The instructor will fire each learner singly by word of 
command, minutely observing that he fires with perfect com- 
posure of countenance and steadiness of body, wrist and eye ; 
the cheek is not to be removed from the butt, or the least 
motion to be permitted until the word " Load" is given. 

The practice with blank cartridge must be continued until 
the learner becomes perfectly firm and motionless at the 
explosion and recoil, without which it would be a mere waste 
of ammunition to commence firing with ball. 

Ball Firing. 

Firing at a target being one of the most essential parts of 
infantry instruction, it is important that all ranks shall be 
perfectly acquainted with the theory. 

The ball-cartridge is scrupulously reserved for the purpose 
of proving the learner's progress or proficiency in shooting ; 
with this view three or four ball-cartridges are given to him, 
and he is placed before the target, which, in the first instance, 
should be round, and eight feet in diameter, at the distance 
of thirty yards, or even nearer, so that it will be almost 
impossible for him to miss it. This method is intended to 
produce confidence in the young soldier, and to shew him 
that his firelock will carry true if accurately aligned: should 



164 FIRING. 

the learner prove, by his practice, that he has not acquired the 
habit of taking aim correctly, he must, on no account, be 
permitted to go on with the useless expenditure of ammu- 
nition, but be sent back to aiming drill, and be continued 
practising to level until he has got over the deficiency; his 
whole attention should be exclusively directed to this object; 
and he will soon find it to be for his own interest and advan- 
tage to become an expert marksman; for no soldier should 
ever be considered as dismissed from drill, or fit to take his 
place in the ranks, until he has shewn himself to be a good 
shot. 

Should the learner, however, prove that he understands the 
principles of taking aim, the range will be increased by degrees 
to fifty, eighty, one hundred yards, at the same target ; and 
when the learners can individually shoot well at these distances, 
the instructor will fire them by files, increasing the distance 
from fifty yards upwards, changing ranks occasionally — then by 
sections — and lastly, by platoon. 

The learner will now practise at a target six feet by two, as 
the last of his drill. This target will be divided by black 
lines into three compartments, upper, centre, and lower divi- 
sions (the centre division having a bull's-eye of eight inches 
diameter in its centre, surrounded at two inches distance by a 
circle of an inch broad), and be placed at a range of eighty 
yards, which distance will be increased, as improvement takes 
place, to one hundred, one hundred and fifty, and two hundred 
yards ; the instructor taking care to point out the necessity of 
the gradual elevation of the musket, as the distance beyond its 
point-blank range is increased. 

In the beginning of the practice the learner is to be made 
to fire two or three times running, due care being taken to 
correct the faults which may have been remarked in the 
position of the body, or in that of the musket. 

The rank and file of each company are divided into three 
classes : the first comprehend the best marksmen ; the second 
class the next best ; and the third all the rest. 



FIXING FLINTS. 165 

No man is returned as sufficiently instructed, until he shall 
have been admitted into the first class. 



It is most important that soldiers should be accustomed to 
judge distances correctly; that they should know how far their 
firelocks will carry point-blank, and also the exact degree of 
elevation that is required in order to hit objects at different 
distances beyond that of point-blank range. They should, 
therefore, be trained to a knowledge of distances on every 
kind of ground, and be at all times prepared to answer cor* 
rectly the following simple questions:— 

1st. What is the point-blank range of your firelock or 
rifle? 

2nd. Does it carry to the right or left? 

3rd. How many yards distant are you from such an object? 

4th. What is the requisite degree of elevation in order to 
enable you to hit the body of a man at 120, 150, 200, &c. 
yards. 

FIXING FLINTS. 

The learners are individually taught the true principles 
which direct the fixing the flint. In fixing flints, no uniform 
mode should be attempted ; the flat side must be placed either 
upwards or downwards, according to the size and shape of the 
flint, and also according to the proportion which the cock 
bears in height to the hammer, which varies in different 
muskets ; this is ascertained by letting the cock gently down, 
and observing where the flint •strikes the hammer, which 
ought to be at the distance of about one-third from the top of 
the hammer: most diligent observation ought, at the same 
time, to be made whether every part of the edge of the flint 
comes in contact with the hammer, so as to strike out the fire 



166 FIXING FLINTS. 

from the whole surface. A flint will often appear to the eye 
to be carefully and skilfully fixed, and to stand firm and 
square; yet, on trial being made, as above directed, it will 
prove to have been very ill fixed, inasmuch as the surface of 
the hammer in some muskets does not stands square, but 
stands a little aslant to the cock. Each particular flint, there- 
fore, requires its own particular mode of being fixed, so as to 
accommodate itself to the particular proportions and confor- 
mations of each particular lock. In whatever position the 
flint should be, it must be screwed firmly,* and the cock 
should be let down, in order to observe whether the flint passes 
clear of the barrel. 

Whenever a piece has been fired, the first opportunity 
should be embraced of examining whether the flint remains 
good, and fixed as it ought to be, and no time should be lost 
in correcting whatever may be found amiss ; which may be 
done without the learner falling out of the ranks, by his facing 
to the right if he belongs to the front rank, and to the left if 
belonging to the rear rank, at the same time seizing the stock 
at the small with the right hand, and letting it fall into the 
hollow of the left arm, the left hand will then hold the firelock 
at the lock, and at the same time assist the right in any 
alteration which may be requisite with the flint. In this 
position the learners are also practised in taking off and put- 
ting on their locks. 



* Two pieces of very soft lead, which will embrace the flint, are recommended to 

ensure this. 



167 



THE RIFLE. 



For the barrel of this instrument, the length of about 
thirty inches appears to be generally preferred. 

The thickness of the metal ought to be at least a quarter of 
an inch from breech to muzze, for a ball of nineteen or twenty 
to the pound. 

The rifle derives its name from having the barrel cut inter* 
nally with spiral grooves, like what is called a female screw ; 
these grooves, however, being less inflected, or approaching 
more to a right line, and generally taking about one turn 
in thirty inches. The number, depth, and width of the 
grooves are variable. 

. To ensure accuracy in shooting, it has been recommended 
jbhat a cylinder should be fixed at the end of the ramrod, and 
the charge placed in it; that the gun reversed should then 
be let down on the ramrod; and that both should finally be 
turned up, the powder, of course, falling into the chamber, and 
none being in this case lost by sticking to the damp sides 
of the barrel. 

For long ranges, larger bullets are required. Having 
proportionally less surface, they are less resisted, and their 
flight is longer. The influence of the wind across the line of 
flight is also less. The government rifles, accordingly, receive 
bullets of nineteen or twenty to the pound ; and the same is 
the case with the cavalry carbines and pistols. 

The rifle cartridge-pouch should be so flat as to contain 
only one row of tin tubes for the cartridges ; and the construc- 
tion of these adopted by the Calabrians, Corsicans, and others, 



168 THE RIFLE. 

is, with justice, recommended for imitation by Colonel Mace- 
rone. " Their pouches go all round the body, with only a 
small interval at each hip, occupied by a bayonet on one side, 
and a pistol on the other; and, when the cartridges are ex- 
hausted in front, the pouch is slipped round." For this he 
recommends support by braces, or by slips from the usual 
suspenders. 

In loading (the ball being large enough to rest on the 
muzzle), a round patch of calico or flannel, with the side next 
to the barrel greased, is laid on the mouth of the piece, into 
which the bullet is driven by a stroke, not calculated to injure 
the barrel. The best ramrod being heavier than the common 
iron ones (Colonel Macerone proposes it should be " of about 
half-inch diameter, except the end applied to the bullet; 
which, for a couple of inches, should be so large as just to fit 
easily into the barrel"), with this, or with the aid of a small 
mallet and the common rod, the ball is pushed home; but not 
struck hard when down, for that would both injure the surface 
of the ball, and crush the granulated powder. In this ope- 
ration, the lead yields to the force of impulsion, and its peri- 
phery, where in contact with the rifle, acquires a shape corre- 
sponding to the grooved inside of the barrel. The ramrod, 
finally, is once or twice flung down, as the sound thereby 
produced proves that the bullet is " home." 

In shooting, the piece is directed to " be pointed down- 
wards, at about a yard from the shooter; then to be steadily 
raised in the line of the object (and the quicker that motion, 
the truer the line) ; and, when within some distance of the 
proposed level, the trigger (if not a detent) is to be gradu- 
ally pressed, according to the shooter's knowledge of it, so 
so that it may, at the precise moment of reaching the level, go 
off without any unnecessary pull; for so soon as the perpen- 
dicular elevation ceases, horizontal vacillation begins. If, 
therefore, the aim be unfortnnately prolonged beyond the 
arrival of the sight at the level, the piece must be lowered, 
and brought up to it again." — Infinite care must be exercised 



THE MANUAL EXERCISE OF RIFLEMEN. 169 

in using hair triggers, some of which are so delicate, that the 
slightest touch or pressure, even that of the wind, is capable 
of firing them. 

When the gun is fired, the indented lines of the bullet again 
follow those of the rifle, and consequently, besides its direct 
motion, it acquires a circular one which constitutes the pecu- 
liarity of a rifle shot. 

A rifle becomes inaccurate, in proportion to the frequency 
of firing without cleaning the barrel. The continuous shots* 
however, may without great deterioration extend to twenty- 
five or thirty. 

THE MANUAL EXERCISE OF RIFLEMEN. 

Of carrying the Rifle. — The rifle is to be carried in the right 
hand, at arm's length, as in advanced arms, the cock resting 
upon the little finger, the thumb upon the guard, and fore- 
finger under it, the upper part of the barrel close in the hollow 
of the shoulder, and the butt pressing upon the thigh. 

Present Arms. Three Motions. — 1st. The rifle is to be 
raised about two inches by the right hand, and brought forward 
a little from the shoulder, at the same time the left hand is 
brought briskly across the body, and seizes the rifle with a full 
grasp, even with the shoulder. 

2nd. The right hand brings the rifle even with the face, and 
opposite the left eye, grasps the small of the stock, turning 
the lock outwards; the left hand seizes it by the stock, so that 
the little finger touches the hammer-spring, on a level with the 
chin, the left elbow close to the butt. 

3rd. The rifle is brought in a straight line to the present, 
the cock turned inwards, and even with the bottom of the 
waistcoat, the right foot at the same instant is drawn back, so 
that the hollow of it may touch the left heel, the right hand 
holding the small of the stock between the fore-finger and 

N 



170 THE MANUAL EXERCISE OF RIFLEMEN. 

thumb, the knuckles upwards, the three other fingers shut in 
the hand. 

Shoulder Arms. Two Motions. — 1st. The rifle is brought 
quickly across the body to the right side, the right hand 
slipping round into the original position when shouldered, the 
left quits its hold, and seizes the rifle again smartly, even with 
the right shoulder, at the same time the right foot is brought 
up in a line with the left. 

2nd. The left hand quits the rifle, and is brought as quickly 
as possible to the position of attention. 

Order Arms. Three Motions. — 1st. At the word " Arms," 
the left hand seizes the rifle, even with the right shoulder, the 
rifle as in the first motion of the present, is raised about two 
inches. 

2nd. The right hand quits its hold, grasps the rifle round 
the muzzle, and brings it gently to the ground, even with the 
toe of the right foot, the wrist pressing against the side and 
elbow as close as possible. 

3rd. The left hand is brought as before on the left thigh. 

Shoulder Arms. — At the word " Arms," the rifle is thrown 
at once into the right shoulder, by a jerk of the right hand ; 
the left catches it till the right seizes the rifle in the proper 
place, and is then instantly brought to its original position on 
the left thigh ; but this must be done with the quickness of 
one motion. 

In the performance of this, as indeed of every other motion, 
the greatest care is to be taken to prevent the rifle falling to 
the ground, as it is an arm easily damaged. 

Support Arms. — The rifle is brought across the body with 
the guard upwards, by bending the right arm, the left hand is 
laid across the right. 



THE MANUAL EXERCISE OF RIFLEMEN. 1/1 

I Carry Arms. — The rifle is brought smartly on the right 

side, and the left hand on the left thigh. 

j Trail Arms. — The left hand seizes the rifle at the second 

I pipe, the right close over the sight, and trails it on the right 
{ side at arm's length, the left falls back on the left thigh. 

, Shoulder Arms. — The rifle is brought to the shoulder, as 

from the order. 

1 From the Order to Trail Arms. 

Trail Arms. — The right hand seizes the rifle as low as 
t possible, without constraint, then raises and catches it just 

above the sight. 

From the Trail to Order Arms. 

Order Arms. — The rifle slides gently through the right hand 
{ to the ground ; when even with the right toe, the right hand 

l again grasps the muzzle. 

Fix Bayonets. — The rifle is thrown six inches to the front, 
the bayonet brought back-handed from the scabbard locket 
by the thumb and fore-finger of the left hand, and the rifle 
brought back quickly to its place. 

Shoulder Arms. — As before. 

Charge Bayonets. One Motion. — The rifle is brought 
smartly into the hollow of the right hip, the left hand firmly 
grasped round the barrel with the thumb in rear of the sight, 
the right hand clear of the guard, and grasping the small of 
the butt, the right toe to the right, and the left toe to the 
front : the rear rank to remain at the shoulder. 

Shoulder Arms. Two Motions. — 1st. The rifle is thrown 

. n2 



172 THE MANUAL EXERCISE OF RIFLEMEN. 

smartly into the shoulder, and steadied as before by the left 
hand. 
2nd. Quit the left hand. 

Order Anns. — As before. 

Unfix Bayonets. One Motion. — The rifle is brought briskly 
between the knees, the lock in and guard out ; the bayonet 
unlocked by the thumb and fore-finger of the left hand, and 
knocked off by the right, at which time it is returned to the 
scabbard, directed by the thumb of the left hand on the top 
of the scabbard, when the rifle and left hand are brought to 
their proper position. 

Stand at Ease. — The muzzle is brought to the front at the 
extent of the right arm, the elbow resting on the hip, the 
hollow of the right foot brought in rear of the left heel,, and 
the left knee bent. 



PLATOON EXERCISE. 

Prepare to Load. — 1st. Is the same as the first motion in 
the present arms. 

2nd. The soldier half faces to the right, and in the motion 
brings down the rifle to a horizontal position, just above the 
right hip, the left hand supports it at the swell of the stock, 
the elbow resting against the side, the right thumb against the 
hammer, the knuckles upwards, and elbow pressing against 
the butt, the lock inclining a little to the body, to prevent the 
powder from falling out. The officer now warns the men, in 
going through the loading motions, 

To wait for the Words of Command. 



PLATOON EXERCISE. 173 

At the word One. — The pan is pushed open by the right 
thumb, the right hand then seizes the cartridge with the first 
three fingers. 

Two. — The cartridge is brought to the mouth, and placed 
between the two first right double teeth, the end twisted off 
and brought close to the pan. 

Three. — The priming is shaken into the pan; in doing 
which, to see that the powder is properly lodged, the head 
must be bent : the pan is shut by the third and little finger, 
the right hand then slides behind the cock, and holds the 
small part of the stock between the third and little finger, and 
ball of the hand. 

Four. — The soldier half faces to the left: the rifle is brought 
to the ground, with the barrel outwards, by sliding it with 
care through the left hand, which then seizes it near the 
muzzle, the thumb stretched along the stock; the butt is 
placed between the heels, the barrel between the knees, which 
must be bent for that purpose : the cartridge is put into the 
barrel, and the ramrod seized with the fore-finger and thumb 
of the right hand. 

Rod. — The ramrod is drawn quite out by the right hand, 
the left quits the rifle, and grasps the ramrod the breadth of 
a hand from the bottom, which is sunk one inch into the 
barrel. - 

Home. — The cartridge will be forced down with both hands, 
giving two distinct strokes with the rod to insure its being so, 
the left then seizes the rifle about six inches from the muzzle, 
the soldier stands upright again, draws out the ramrod with 
the right hand, and puts the end into the pipe. 

Return. — The ramrod will be returned by the right hand, 
which then seizes the rifle below the left. 



174 PLATOON EXERCISE. 

Shoulder.*— The right hand brings the rifle to the right 
shoulder, turning the guard outwards, the left seizes it above 
the hammer-spring till the right has its proper hold round the 
small of the stock, when the left is drawn quickly to the left 
thigh. 

Make Ready. — Bring the rifle with one brisk motion in the 
same position as at the word " Prime and Load," placing the 
thumb of the right hand on the cock; cock the rifle, then 
grasp the small of the butt, and place the fore-finger on the 
swivel nail, three fingers grasping the guard, right foot drawn 
back. 

Present. — Raise the rifle to the present with the fore-finger 
within the guard ready to fire ; in this too much pains cannot 
be taken to prevent the learner from raising his rifle with a 
jerk, it must be raised so high that he may lay the right cheek 
on the butt, without too much stooping the head; particular 
care must be taken that the learner in this position shuts the 
left eye in taking aim, the use of the sights being previously 
explained, and takes his object. 

No word of command given to fire. 



APPENDIX. 



SKETCH OF THE MODERN SYSTEM OF WAR. 



175 



APPENDIX. 



SKETCH OF THE MODERN SYSTEM OF WAR. 

MILITARY POLITICS. 

In waging war, certain political, necessarily precede field, 
operations. 

The causes of war, and the grounds of any peace which 
may be formed, are first understood ; alliances and treaties of 
subsidy are formed; advantage is taken of the constitution 
and means of the country, of the jealousy of other states, of 
factions, civil dissensions, and private ambition ; and provision 
is made for occasional hostility. 

PLANS OF CAMPAIGNS. 

In military operations, the plan of campaign is first deter- 
mined. 

In an offensive war, the part for the principal attack, the 
points for diversions, and the mode of covering our own 
territory, are fixed upon. 

The magazines are consequently stored; the fortresses are 
repaired ; those which are to form the base of operations are 
determined ; the direction of the lines of operation is traced ; 
and the subsequent conduct of the war is facilitated by rendering 
mountain roads practicable, by cutting roads through forests, 
by collecting boats on navigable rivers, &c. 



176 FIELD OPERATIONS IN GENERAL. 

Frontiers corps are established; the strength and composition 
of the army is regulated ; the general officers are appointed, 
and provisional instructions given ; and, at the expedient time, 
the various corps are united with the greatest secrecy, rapidity, 
and correctness, and as near as possible to the first point of 
action. 

It is unnecessary here to enter into the many details which 
depend on these, or into the varied combinations which local 
and other circumstances render necessary, — In all, to deceive 
the enemy is the first consideration. 



FIELD OPERATIONS IN GENERAL. 

Field Operations which now ensue, and in which troops 
move about solely for the purpose of passing from one place 
to another, are termed Strategics ; but, when within reach of 
sight, they act or seem preparing to act one against the other, 
these operations are termed Tactics. 

Strategics are divided into two parts — encamping, and 
marching; and Tactics into other two— the forming of the 
order of battle, and the conduct of the battle itself. 



STRATEGIC BASE, LINES, AND OBJECTS. 

All Stragetic Operations imply three circumstances; namely, 
a Base of Operation, Lines of Operation, and an Object of 
Operation. 

The Base of Operation is formed by a range of protected 
magazines on the same line. 

The Lines of Operation are formed by the paths of the 
convoys which proceed from these magazines toward the army 
advancing against, or retreating from, a particular object. 

The Object of Operation is at the point to which these 
lines proceeding from the base converge. 



STRATEGIC BASE, LINKS, AND 0BJSCT8. 177 

With regard to the Base. — An arch inclosing the enemy is 
the most advantageous form of it, because the enemy can take 
no tenable position within it ; and its best direction is parallel 
to that of the enemy, because it then best protects the inter- 
jacent country. A long base secures convoys and retreats, 
alarms the enemy, and impedes his diversions. 

With regard to the Lines proceeding from the fortresses at 
the extremities of the base.— In order to be secure and that 
convoys may not be interrupted, they must form, at the object, 
an angle of at least 90 degrees or a right angle.* Hence the 
more distant the object, the wider must be the base : but the 
length of the lines of operation ought not in general to be 
above three days march. These lines, pioneers must some- 
times clear; roads must be destroyed through which the enemy 
may steal upon them; and posts must be placed to protect 
them. 

With regard to the Object. — It should rather be the supplies 

• The army E, acting from the base A D B, of the right-angled triangle A C 
B, toward the object C, has no reason to fear being cut off, or that its convoys will 
be intercepted ; for though the enemy may cut off the lines of operation B C, or 
A C, according to the side from which he comes, he cannot possibly cut off the lines 
C D, or any other, either between B and D, or A and D. For, if he advance on 
the rear of the army E crossing the lines of operation B C and A C, which proceed 
from the extremities of the base A D B, he will himself be cut off from his prin- 
cipal posts. These can be placed only at FGH. But if the enemy advance as 
far as the line C D, or only to the point I, the army B may easily, by a detachment, 
cut off his retreat to F, and the fortress B might be able to intercept it towards O 
and H : so that be would himself fall into the snare he bad laid for others. 




178 STRATEGIC BASK, LINES, AND OBJECTS. 

of the enemy's army than the army itself. . . . The art of dis- 
covering the most important object Long those .gainst which 
operations are carried on, is of the highest importance in a 
General, This object is called the Strategic Key. 

As to the Base in particular. — It is, from its principle and 
object, evident that, according as an army acting offensively 
proceeds into the enemy's country, it must form new bases. 
The base, therefore, which is situate in the country of the 
offensive army should have extent enough to cover and secure, 
by its extremities, the flanks of the other bases established in 
the enemy's country by the same army. 

If the enemy' 8 frontiers be provided with fortresses proper 
for establishing a base, and these be in the army's possession, 
it is natural to turn them to that purpose : many of these for- 
tresses, however, deserve rather to be demolished than kept. 
If the conquered country have no fortresses, such towns, 
villages, and posts should be intrenched, as may best secure the 
magazines, lines of operation, and communications of the 
offensive army. 

STRATEGIC MOVEMENTS. 

Offensive operations must never be tamely suffered, nor 
defence merely made : the offensive must be assumed. 

Parallel positions and parallel defensive marches must, 
therefore, as soon as possible, be relinquished, in order to 
follow the mode of active diversions on the rear and flanks of 
the enemy. 

The enemy is better impeded by taking a station on one 
side than in front — by harassing his rear and flank, acting 
against his convoys and supplies, and even perhaps invading 
his country. 

Concealed marches and all the calculations which they require, 
are of the highest importance.* 

• The art of computing manoeuvres with reference to time and space is called 
Loegistics. 



CIRCUMSTANCES MODIFYING THESE PRINCIPLES. 179 

As every offensive operation ought to be concentric, every 
retreat ought to be excentric, in order to alarm the enemy for 
his lines of operation.* Even in strategics, however, the 
flanks of the retreating army are somewhat endangered by an 
excentric retreat. 



CIRCUMSTANCES MODIFYING THESE PRINCIPLES. 

Varieties in time and place lead to innumerable modes of 
applying these simple Strategic principles; and it is only 
observation, genius, and the coup-cF&il acquired in a few 
campaigns, which can communicate a knowledge of them. 

When forced to act on the defensive, the employment of the 
same principles by the enemy must be guarded against, as 
well as all the applications of them of which varieties in time 
and place may suggest the adoption. 

Then, the knowledge of one's own frontiers ; of the strength 
and resources of the enemy; of the disposal of his magazines; 
of his design as to the principal point of action or of important 
diversion ; of what territory should, for various reasons, be left 
open, and what defended ; of anticipating him at the opening 
of the campaign; of where diversions may be made against 
him ; of the best places for magazines ; of the best direction 

* An Army which retreats from ABODE, toward FGHIK, runs no 
risk of seeing the enemy advance into the arch F K, for, by such a movement; he 
would be in danger of being surrounded. 



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180 TACTICAL BASS, LINKS, AND OBJECT. 

of lines of operation; of settling camps; of positions to be 
occupied ; of passes and openings to be guarded, both at first 
and subsequently, in case of retreat; of avoiding a general 
engagement; of injuring the enemy by skirmishes; of attacking 
him on his marches ; of falling on his detachments ; of enter- 
prises on his depdts and lines of operation ; of waiting for him 
at the passages of rivers, at defiles, and in disadvantageous 
situations ; — the knowledge of these and numerous other con- 
siderations, is of the highest importance. 

TACTICAL BASE, LINE8, AND OBJECT. 

To tactical operations, these strategic rules are applicable, 
by substituting the Order of Battle for the base, the Lines of 
March and Fire for the lines of operation, and the Enemy's 
Army for its supplies. 

With regard to the order of battle. — It is formed by the 
deployment of men, as the base is said to be formed by the 
deployment of materials of war. The most common mode of 
deploying is the Prussian method, or what the French call a 
ftrot'r, in which the divisions move along the two smaller sides 
of a triangle. This deployment of columns is made out of 
camion reach, and covered by a strong vanguard — in plains, 
consisting of cavalry. The extension of the line of battle 
resembles the extension of the base in this, that it also permits 
attacks on the flanks and in rear. 

With regard to the lines of march and of fire. — They are 
evidently continuous, or the former terminate in the latter; 
and they are precisely as numerous as the soldiers in the first 
rank of the order of battle. Like lines of operation, they are 
most effective when concentric; for if they fall on the front 
and both flanks of the enemy, he must yield or fly. 

With regard to the object. — It is evidently now no longer 
the supplies, but the army of the enemy. . . The art of dis- 
tinguishing, before a battle, the point of the enemy's position 
on which the chief force of the attack should be directed, 



TACTICAL BASE, LINES, AND OBJECT. 181 

especially constitutes the military coup-d'ceil. That point is 
called the key of the position. 

As to the orflsr of battle in particular. Troops rarely 
advance in it ; but in close columns. When formed by their 
deployment, it generally presents from sixty to eighty thousand 
men arranged in two lines, and divided into three principal 
corps, with intervals between each, and a corps of reserve. — 
Valleys and woods are often made choice of to conceal from 
the enemy the situations of reserves of infantry and cavalry, 
which are not called into action till, in consequence of faults 
committed by him, their operation becomes decisive. 

The post of commander-in-chief is at the head of the strong 
and numerous reserve which supports the centre. From that 
point, all orders are issued ; and to that point, with extreme 
celerity, all communications are made. 

The Officers of the Etat-major carry orders to the generals 
of division, who communicate them to the generals of brigade, 
and these to the colonels ; and they receive from the generals 
of division the details which they wish to transmit in return. — 
Each general, however, is free in his manoeuvres except where 
the marshal or commander-in-chief ordains it otherwise. 

The staff officer should be sufficiently instructed to be able 
to serve as an officer of foot, of cavalry, of artillery or of engi- 
neers ; and knowledge of the latter kind is especially necessary, 
because an officer who is skilled in fortification distinguishes, 
at the first coup-d'ceil, all the advantages or disadvantages of 
any position.* 

The moment an enemy is announced, the aid-de-camps and 
staff-officers mount horse and fly to the advanced posts, exa- 
mine every appearance attentively, determine whether it is a 
mere demonstration or a real attack, and make that report 
which determines the measures to be adopted by the general. 

The details of the order of battle depend on localities and 

• In the British service, a mere knowledge of drawing plans, forming lines, &c, 
is too often the substitute of that far more important experience in war— intelligence, 
activity, and courage, which are moat essential in this department. 



182 KINDS OF FORCE WHICH TACTICS EMPLOY. 

circumstances; and few commanders indeed are capable of 
suiting it to these with all the perfection to be wished for. 



KINDS OF FORCE WHICH TACTICS EMPLOY. 

In these operations tirailleurs are often as. effective as close 
ranks, and they are less easily thrown into disorder. As they 
extend most, they most easily come upon the flanks of the 
enemy. As, then, troops always do in actual engagement 
maintain only an irregular fire and very imperfect order, their 
acting as tirailleurs has been recommended as at once giving 
them all the advantages of that species of force. Perhaps the 
very numerous cavalry which would be required to protect an 
immense quantity of scattered soldiers, in a level and open 
country, affords the greatest objection to the extension of this 
system. 

Infantry of the line, however, must always form the great 
basis of an army, in order that its movements may be made 
with the greatest possible unity* 

Infantry in general and tirailleurs in particular should always 
be supported by cavalry. The best mode of doing this is to 
place the latter behind in a second line ; because then it may 
readily cover the infantry, and, if the enemy yield, may as 
readily throw him into disorder. 

In order to be of any use, it is absolutely necessary that 
cavalry should keep in a body before the enemy. 

In a plain, it is the part of the cavalry to meet the enemy; 
in woods and mountains, it is that of the foot; and in a mixed 
country it belongs sometimes to one, sometimes to the other. 
Hence, in such a country, they ought to be intermixed when 
marching in columns. 

A column is the best form of defence against cavalry. 

Experience shews that cavalry, when determined, vanquishes 
even columns. This is owing to the mode of arming the latter : 
pikes mixed with the bayonets would effectually protect them. 
I know, says Bulow, I shall be told of the many instances of 



BATTLE. 183 

deployed infantry repulsing cavalry, but surely the latter must 
have wanted courage in those instances. All the officers of 
cavalry, who have seen service, declare unanimously, that, in 
general, their troops do not retreat, till after they have received 
the fire of the infantry, that is to say, when there is almost 
nothing more to fear. This conduct is unaccountable : it is 
doing too much, or too little. If the troopers, after receiving 
the fire, were to clap spurs to their horses, and give them the 
bridle, they would penetrate the ranks. 

Infantry must never, therefore, be left without cavalry to 
support it, even in countries which seem impracticable for 
horse. 

BATTLE. 

By not permitting the enemy to approach too near, it is 
always possible to avoid a battle. 

If intending battle, an army should never wait to be attacked 
in its position, but should ever put itself in motion to attack ;* * 
for, though its position may be one from which it cannot be 
driven by force, yet every position may be turned. 

Battle is never offered, nor an attack made, without the 
position of the enemy having been previously well recon- 
noitered ; and in order to prevent the enemy being equally 
prepared, all the columns are in motion by break of day. 

< It is then, when within sight of his adversary, that an able 
general finally settles his arrangements. 

Till he has there reconnoitered the situation and dispositions 
of the enemy from the front of his vanguard, he retains at 
once the power of guiding his army rapidly and of making in- 
terior movements which escape the enemy's notice or mislead 
him, by keeping his army entirely in columns. 

These having more or less completely deployed, the head- 
quarters are established at the head of a numerous body of 
reserve, behind and near the centre of the main body. Thence, 

• It is long since Machiavelli pointed oat Uris truth. 



184 



BATTLB. 



all orders proceed, and one impulse is propagated through the 
whole. — Yet even the subaltern generals who fight at the head 
of their divisions, should, in order to be prepared for emer- 
gencies, be skilled in great manoeuvres. 

In vain, however, were this intelligence, if the maas which it 
should animate were complex or unwieldy* Hence the organi- 
zation of the army ought to be simple and uniform in the 
highest degree. 

It is this intelligence in the head, and simplicity in the 
members, which permit that rapidity and harmony without 
which no successful battle can be fought. 

In aid of this intelligence, this simplicity and uniformity, 
this rapidity and harmony, a powerful reserve is indispensable. 
For it is scarcely ever the general who merely makes the first 
movement who decides the victory ; but he who, under circum- 
stances not otherwise unfavourable, has at his disposal, after an 
obstinate engagement of several hours, a formidable body of 
fresh and select troops. 

No sooner, then, is the battle commenced at all points, than 
this body of reserve, under the immediate command of the 
eommander-in-chief, approaches in order to render the battalion 
impenetrable, to assist, in any emergency, either of the wings 
from which it is equally distant, or to make, at a critical 
moment, some decisive movement. 

Such are the almost omnipotent instruments, which only 
wait the favourable opportunity, afforded by any disorder or 
fluctuation of the enemy's line, to make an impetuous attack — 
an attack which is instantly supported by an analogous change 
in the movements of the whole army, and which almost infal- 
libly produces decisive success. 

To obtain this favourable opportunity, and to employ these 
powerful instruments, let us examine the means employed. 

First, a defect in the enemy's situation and dispositions, ob- 
served during the reconnoissance, may at once present this 
opportunity or render the employment of any reserve unne- 
cessary. Secondly, *uch an opportunity may require previous 



9ATTLB. 185 

manoeuvring. Thirdly, a long continued fire of artillery and 
musketry may alone be able to procure it. Fourthly, it may, 
in this case, be first obtained by the enemy, whose ill use of it 
may present the means of his own defeat. Fifthly, it may not 
be attained at all, and it may be necessary to assume the 
defensive. 

The conduct necessary in the first case, in which a defect of 
the enemy's situation or disposition presents a weak point, 
against which a general may rapidly and advantageously ad- 
vance, need not be here considered. — Modes of attack are 
described under the ensuing head. 

When the second case is resorted to, the general manoeuv- 
ring in presence of his adversary endeavours, by misleading 
him, to induce him to make some wrong movements, of which 
the general instantly avails himself; or he abandons one 
position in order to take another, of which the object is to 
outflank the enemy or to break his line — the only means by 
which the success of a general battle can be decided. 

When the third method seems alone likely to procure the 
opportunity, the fire of artillery and musketry is tremendous, 
and no regiment either of infantry or cavalry advances beyond 
the line of battle for the purpose of breaking that of the 
enemy, unless a special order has been given. — After a short 
contest, however, the enemy may, by some feint, be thrown 
into disorder, and present an opening at a point incapable of 
resistance. Then the impetuous attack of a regiment may 
lead to victory: fresh troops rapidly advance to support it : all 
is in motion to take advantage of the disorder. The cross 
firing against the troops is murderous, but short. While a 
brigade rushes through the enemy's line, much or the whole of 
the reserve takes its place; the enemy are completely occupied 
in front; and the column forms in order of battle on the 
flank or rear of the enemy. Unanimity prevails in the attack; 
but there can be no regularity in the defence of the broken 
army; and its hesitation or slowness in wheeling to face the 
assailants, or in adopting an orderly retreat, always augments 

o2 



186 BATTLE. 

its disorder, and frequently incurs its destruction. To insure 
this, reserve after reserve is brought up; a second reserve of 
course flanking the party of the enemy which flanks the first: 
the cavalry, too, acts in a body upon one point, and completes 
the disaster. 

When the fourth case occurs, and the favourable oppor- 
tunity is first obtained, but ill employed, by the enemy, it is 
then that the reserve of select troops, commanded by an 
intrepid general, flies to the point of disorder. The victorious 
enemy, having scarcely finished its charge, is vigorously attacked 
in flank. Forced to fly in his turn, he throws his own first 
line into confusion, and opens a passage to the assailants. 
Thus, does the first movement often insure defeat instead of 
victory. 

If, in the fifth case, no such opportunity can in any way 
be obtained, and no attack can be made but with disadvantage, 
the general may fall back and take a position, in order to 
wait a more favourable occasion. — Now, he may be assailed 
by the enemy. If the position be so advantageous as to present 
only one point of attack, he instantly determines the order of 
battle. If otherwise, he does not open his defensive dispo- 
sitions till he well knows what points the attacking enemy 
proposes to attempt. In columns, on the field to be occupied, 
he waits the first movements of the enemy, and determines, 
according to them, the arrangement of his troops. At the 
principal points of the line he means to attack, the enemy 
sees only heads of columns, of which he cannot calculate the 
depth, or imagine the object. If he manoeuvre, the army 
manoeuvres also. If he endeavours to mislead, so does the 
general — either by presenting a point weak in appearance, in 
order to attract him to a place, whither, by artful measures, 
he can rapidly collect a powerful force to defend it- — or by 
inducing him to make a wrong movement, which affords an 
opportunity to attack him to advantage, and to make an 
offensive counter movement. 



187 



MODES OF ATTACK. 



It is obviously of the highest advantage to enclose the 
enemy — that is, to have a larger front than he has. This, too, 
is effected when an army is on his flanks, even though in- 
ferior in number. 

The system of fire-arms having necessarily introduced the 
long and slender order of battle, the weakness of the flanks 
of a modern army is irremediable; and an enemy is lost if 
attacked on them. 

Hence, weak as an army may be, it will always have more 
troops than an enemy's flank can oppose, and may always 
worst him by concentric fires directed to it. So convinced are 
soldiers of this, though confusedly, that whether infantry or 
eavalry, all fly when vigorously attacked in flank. — It is also 
owing to the advantages of concentric lines of fire proceeding 
from besiegers, and the disadvantages of excentric ones pro- 
ceeding from the besieged, that fortresses are reduced. — 
Hence, too, a square battalion, surrounded by tirailleurs, 
cannot be saved from ruin. 

An army ought, therefore, only to amuse and check an 
enemy's front by an open corps;— light infantry, or tirailleurs : 
its serious attack should be secretly directed to his flanks, 
and these every effort should be made to turn, or to bring its 
front to bear on them. 

It is indispensable to check the enemy's front in order to 
prevent his moving the remoter portion of his line into a 
direction parallel to the attack in flank, the consequence of 
which would be a battle front to front, the event of which 
is always doubtful. 

When an enemy's flank is worsted, he cannot retreat so 
excentrically as he otherwise might; his lines of operation are 
rendered insecure, his convoys may be seized, communication 
with his magazines cut off, or a diversion made in his country. 

Attacks in front are, therefore, less in the spirit of the 



188 M0DS8 OP ATTACK. 

modern system; for, if an army, thus attacked and broken in 
the centre, made an excentric retreat, and if the assailants did 
not so greatly preponderate as to be able, at the same time, 
to check the wings of the broken army, they would then, on 
both sides, be taken in flank. 

An attack on the flanks of an enemy's army in the oblique 
order of a single continued line, which was, in modern times, 
used by Frederick of Prussia, is in general disadvantageous; 
as, in case of retreat, it exposes its flank: it may also easily be 
out-flanked, because the oblique line must march diagonally, 
but the other, by a lateral movement in the straightest and 
shortest way; or, the nearest wing of the line attacked, may 
avert the attack by falling back; or, the most distant one 
may reach the flank of the corresponding wing by an expe- 
ditious march* 

At all events, it is indispensable to this oblique attack that 
the army be previously completely upon the enemy's flank, 
and that the front of the adversary be cheeked, and particu- 
larly the wing opposite that attacked. A hooked flank, on. the 
most advanced wing, which may turn on the prolongation of 
the oblique front, and take the enemy in flank, thus, is also 
very necessary : — 




The oblique order of battle has still this great defect, that it 
offers to the enemy a flank which may be enfiladed by his 
cannon; and, if the enemy greatly out-flank it, both the 
longer and shorter oblique lines are liable to this. If the 
flank of the attacking wing were covered by a square battalion, 
then two of its sides might be enfiladed. 

The oblique attack in echelons, invented by the King of 
Prussia, has fewer faults; because, in case of the defeat of the 
first echelon, disorder is not so easily propagated along the 



MODES OF ATTACK. 189 

divided front; and their flank is better secured. But though 
this is the case, yet each, as it advances, being exposed to a 
concentric fire, they may in succession be defeated. 



At all events, the first and second echelon* should be sup 
ported by a second line composed of cavalry, and batteries 
should be placed to enfilade that part of the enemy's line, 
which would probably fall back if taken in flank by the first 
echelon. 

There is one species of attack, however, less affecting the 
flanks than even these forma of oblique attack, being indeed 
directly in front; but which is superior to the oblique attack, 
and sometimes equal in value to the attack in flank; yet it 
derives all its value from its afterwards permitting attacks in 
flank, and, consequently, proves the justness of that as a 
general principle ; this is the column of Folard.* This column, 
consisting of, perhaps, thirty files, pierces the enemy's line, 
and separates lengthwise into two halves; of which one, 
facing to the right, and another to left, they attack in flank 
the separated parts of that line. 

To the column, cannon firing grape in different directions 
ought especially to be opposed; yet the effect of cannon is 
diminished by the narrowness of its front, and by the rapidity 
of its motion, greater than that of a deployed line. — The 
column might make an unshaken resistance to cavalry by 
means of pikes placed on muskets. — Tirailleurs, however, 
would, if insufficiently opposed by those of the column, pro- 

* I need scarcely remark, that Marshal Saze thinks Folard wrong, only in 
deeming it the best order in all cases. Recent events prove it to be of yet greater 
value than «ven Saxe imagined. 



190 MODES OF ATTACK. 

duce the most terrible effect upon it; for, by yielding as it 
advanced, all their shots would tell: even then, however, if 
there existed collateral columns, supported by cavalry in a 
second line, it would be impossible to penetrate between them, 
in order to take them in rear and flank. 

The great rule of some tacticians, is to avoid waiting for the 
shock of such a colossus, and to come up again upon its 
flanks and rear, by which means the advantage of the column 
would, in a great measure, be lost; these movements being 
covered by cavalry. — But it is evident that the attacking army 
would not fail, before the attack, to place corps opposite to 
each of the wings of the army attacked, in order to prevent 
their movements against the flanks of the column. It might 
even have had the power of placing these corps so as to make 
the wings fear being turned by them. 

The best way of repelling an attack in columns appears 
to be — first, to advance a considerable body of tirailleurs, 
supported by light cavalry and light artillery, in order to check 
those of the enemy, to conceal the disposition of the army, 
and to discover, if possible, that of the enemy; and these 
tirailleurs should, when forced to fall back, retreat A la deban- 
dade behind the second line; secondly, to have batteries on 
the salient parts of the position to fire grape-shot, &c, on the 
flanks and rear of the advancing columns, whenever the tirail- 
leurs have unmasked them.; thirdly, to have the first line of the 
army supported by corps of cavalry, forming its reserve, and by 
some pieces of artillery, deployed from the first, in order, at a 
proper period, to receive the columns with cross fires ; fourthly, 
to have the second line formed in columns at one hundred and 
fifty paces from the first, supported also by cavalry and artillery, 
iu order, when the first is forced to retreat and form behind 
it, to move forward in charge step to attack the tottering 
columns ; fifthly, to have the general body of reserve placed 
behind these, ready in due time to advance to their aid; lastly, 
to have batteries established behind the army, in order to 
flank the passages by which, in case of defeat, it must retreat; 



RETREATS, ETC. 191 

or, at least, the situations where these might be placed should 
previously be reconnoitred. 

If columns advancing in three divisions are attacked and 
must defend, the central division withdraws to permit a cross 
fire; thus, 



ODD 



D 



Thus, there are three modes of attack; in flank, obliquely, 
and in front by columns ; yet the object of all of them is the 
same, namely, to effect attacks in flank. 

RETREATS, ETC. 

Retreats after battle should in general take place excen- 
trically, promptly, and under cover of cavalry. Thus protected, 
they may be made in disorder, and troops may again immedi- 
ately form in the most convenient places. 

The excentricity of the retreat alarms the enemy's flanks 
and rear, and prevents pursuit. — An excentric retreat in Tactics, 
however, is much more dangerous than in Strategics ; and 
an army, broken in the centre especially, ought, perhaps, 
never to attempt it, unless from local and other circumstances, 
it is completely secured against the movements of the enemy 
on its flanks. 

An orderly retreat, after engaging with musketry, is impos- 
sible. In such a case, troops always fly in confusion; for, 
otherwise, there would be no occasion for their quitting the 
field. — Hence the importance of cavalry in a second line, 
among which the men may then fly in haste. — They must 
instantly form in the most convenient place — a wood or 
height ; and, returning directly to action with little loss, they 



192 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

may display a well-founded courage. If thus circumstanced, 
in an open situation, and without cavalry, infantry must keep 
together, or it will be cut to pieces. 

An orderly retreat, after cannonading, is easy, even if a 
slaughtering fire of musketry should take place in the course 
of it. 

After losing a battle, fresh offensive operations should im- 
mediately bethought of. Not to be beaten, it is only necessary 
not to believe that you are so. It is proper, then, to begin 
the lesser war {petite guerre), to avoid battles, and to be content 
with manoeuvring. If a leader were bold and wary upon 
proper occasions, he would be almost invincible. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

The precise cause of the ascendancy possessed by a great 
number of troops over a smaller is, in the modern system of 
war, the advantage it affords of outflanking the enemy. 

The superiority which the modern system thus confers upon 
number is eminently favourable to defensive war, and even to 
the insurrection of a people opposed by a regular disciplined 
army. 

It follows also, from the principle of the base and the pos- 
session of natural limits by many states, that their military 
energies are also limited, and must diminish the more, the 
further they remove from their source. 

Hence, these limits will always afford a means of dividing 
extensive empires. 

From the same cause, however, states will always have a 
tendency to certain boundaries, which it will be equally vain 
to diminish or extend ; and if this should be thoroughly under- 
stood, peace of longer duration would result from the con- 
viction. 

To the production of this effect, the improvement of war 
itself will lead ; not merely because equal physical advantages 
and equal knowledge on both sides would render contest 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 193 

useless; but because the more dreadful war can be rendered, 
and the more certainly destructive to all who engage in it, 
the less willingly will it be waged by any. 

None will regret that the art of robbery (for death in war is 
only a means of robbing) should utterly cease; for it, more 
than other pursuit, destroys sensibility in the best of men, 
and involves every vice which can debase them to the level of 
brutes ; nor will any one pretend that it would lead to exces- 
sive population, who remembers that there is, even in Europe, 
more desert than cultivated land, 

Unfortunately, this result is rendered less probable by the 
greater or less strength of the physical boundaries of different 
states, their less or greater population which modifies that 
strength, and the readiness of the people to defend existing 
establishments: circumstances, all of which must give origin 
to war. 

One circumstance, perhaps, alone could put a period to war, 
namely, such improvement in the art, that, of those who took 
the field, none could escape destruction. 

As General Bulow shews, the superiority given by the mo- 
dern system of war to number over valour, is favourable to 
defensive war and to the insurrection of a people opposed 
by a regular disciplined army, provided the former be guided 
by an intelligent mind; because, on the number of shooters 
well organized and distributed, depends an army's being at- 
tacked on its flanks, and its magazines being unattended. 



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WALKER'S LADIES' EXERCISES. 

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EXERCISES FOR LADIES; calculated to preserve and 
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Tbe work describes and illustrates, by numerous Drawings, the right and 
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BRITISH MANLY EXERCISES. By Donald Walker, 

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On the PRESERVATION and IMPROVEMENT of 
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THE POOR LAWS. 

In 18mo., price 4«., 

THE POOR LAWS AS THEY WERE, AND AS 
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CHURCH AND CHAPEL DIRECTORY. 

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THE METROPOLITAN ECCLESIASTICAL DIREC- 
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HELPS and HINTS how to Protect Life and Property; 
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JAMAICA AS IT WAS, AS IT IS, AND AS IT MAY 
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DR. CALCOTT'S GRAMMAR of MUSIC ; comprising a 
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The JUROR'S GUIDE; or, the SPIRIT of the JURY 

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DEAFNESS. 

In I8mo., price 2s. Bd., 

INSTRUCTIONS for the CURE of DEAFNESS and 
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A PRACTICAL SUMMARY of the STAMP DUTIES, 
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John H. Brady, late of the Stamp Office. 

'* It is the object of the authors to offer to the legal profession and the public, is 
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PRAYERS FROM SCRIPTURE. 

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SPLENDIDLY ILLUSTRATED WORKS 

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THOMAS'S LIFE OF NAPOLEON. 

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To be completed in Two Handsome Library Volumes. 

HISTORY OF NAPOLEON, 

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THE DEVIL IN LONDON! 

Now publishing, in Monthly Parti, price 1*. each, 

OE THE 

DEVIL ON TWO STICKS; 

Newly Translated from the French of Lb Sags, by Joseph Thomas ; 

AND 

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From Deeigne by the celebrated Tont Johannot. 

To be completed in Eleven Parts, forming one superb Volume, 

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8UPERBLY ILLUSTRATED EDITION. 

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ADVENTURES of DON QUIXOTE pe la MANCHA. 
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DEDICATDj BY PERMISSION^ TO MRS. LOUDON. 

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DRAWING-ROOM BOTANY. By James H. Fennell. 
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Just published, price 10*. 6d. cloth, 

COLOUR, AS A MEANS OF ART; being an Adaptation 

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THOMAS'S BURLESQUE DRAMA : containing " The 
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OLD FRIENDS IN A NEW DRESS; or, Select 
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THE CHILD'S FAIRY LIBRARY. With Six Hundred 
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CONTENTS : 

THB SLEEPING BEAUTY, 
HOP-O'MY THUMB, 



PRINCE DESIRE, 

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BLANCH AND VERMILION, 

TOADS AND DIAMONDS, 

ORACIOSA AND PERCINET, 

THE PRINCESS MAIA, 

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THE ISLANDS OF PLEASURE. 



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Third edition. Just published, price Is. 6d. in roan gilt, with tuck, 

THE PEARL; or, Daily Refreshment for the 
Christian ; by the Misses Price, Authors of the " Gods of 
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\C. 



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THE BOOK OF HEALTH AND BEAUTY. By J. S. 
Forsyth, Esq., Author of " The Medical Dictionary," " The 
Dictionary of Diet/' &c. &c. Embracing the Economy of the 



Beard, 




Feet, 




Lips, Mouth, 


Breath, 




Hair, 




Nails, 


Complexion, 




Gums, 




Skin, 


Eyes, 




Hands, 




Teeth, 


Eye-brows, 




Lips, 




Tongue, &c.&c 


Eye-lashes, 










With Recipes 


and 


Directions for 


use of safe and salutary 


Cosmetics, and 


a va 


riety of select 


Recipes for the Dressing 


Room of both sexes. 









In half-morocco, price 21*. coloured, 

THOMAS'S LIBRARY ATLAS, of Modern and Ancient 

Geography. Every Map is beautifully engraved, from Original 

Drawings, according to the most recent authorities, carefully 

revised by eminent Geographical Professors. 

. " The work is well engraved, remarkably elegant and attractive, and very accu- 
rate."— Jfew Monthly Magcurine. 



By Joseph Thomas, Finch Lane, CornhilL 

In half-roan, price 12*. plain, 15*. coloured, 

THOMAS'S IMPERIAL SCHOOL ATLAS, of Modern 
and Ancient Geography, containing forty-four Maps, engraved 
from the best authorities, by Lizars. 



Dedicated, by permission, to the Rev. J. R. Major, Head Matter of King's College 

School, price 6*. doth, 

POPULAR GEOGRAPHY; being a Companion to 
Thomas's Library Atlas, or to Thomas's Imperial School 
Atlas. By Rowland Bond, Professor of Geography and Mathe- 
matics, and Lecturer at the London Institution. 

" Of all the elementary works on geography with which we are acquainted, this 
appears to us the best,— as a school-book, or a book for families, it will be found of 
rare value."— Jfew Monthly Magamne. 



Also, by the same Author, 

GEOGRAPHY FOR CHILDREN, price 9d. sewed. 
THE FIRST STEP IN GRAMMAR, price Id. sewed. 



Price 2s. W. doth, 

POPULAR STATISTICS, and Universal Geography; 

a Perpetual Companion to all the Almanacs; containing the 

Length, Breadth, Population, Chief Cities, Produce, Government, 

&c o^ every State in the World. 

" Without exaggeration, it contains a larger body of information than was ever 
before compressed into so small a space, or sold at so low a price."— -Metropolitan 
Mag* 



^^^^p^i^p^-r- 



WORKS 

PREPARING FOR IMMEDIATE PUBLICATION, 
By JOSEPH THOMAS. 



In one volume, crown 8vo., cloth, 

THE CASTLE OF OTRANTO. By Horace Walpole. 
Illustrated with a Portrait of the author, and Thirty-two beautiful 
Engravings on Wood, from designs by William Standfast. 

This edition will be exquisitely printed on superior paper ; the 
original text will be scrupulously adhered to, and it will be pre- 
faced by an original Memoir of Horace Walpole, from the pen of 
Georgb Moir Bus8by, author of the " Life of Napoleon/' &c. 



In one volume, demy 8vo., doth, 

A NATURAL HISTORY OF QUADRUPEDS. By J. H. 
Fennbll. Illustrated with Two Hundred Engravings, from 
designs made expressly for this interesting Work. 



In two volumes, pott 8vo. , cloth, 

EVA VON TROTH. An Historical Romance. Trans- 
lated from the German of Blumenhagen, by Mrs. Captain 
Addison. 



In one volume, post 8vo., cloth, 

TRAVELS AROUND MY ROOM. 



A NEW VOLUME OF THE CHILD'S LIBRARY. 

LITTLE TALES FOR LITTLE HEADS AND LITTLE 

HEARTS. A new edition ; with additional Tales and Illustrations. 



SMILES FOR ALL SEASONS. By R. S. Sharpe, author 
of " Old Friends in a New Dress," &c. A new edition. 



I